Username / Password :   
LinuxDig.com Request For Comments

RFC Number : 905

Title : ISO Transport Protocol specification ISO DP 8073.









Network Working Group ISO
Request for Comments: 905 April 1984



ISO Transport Protocol Specification
ISO DP 8073


Status of this Memo:

This document is distributed as an RFC for information only. It
does not specify a standard for the ARPA-Internet.

Notes:

1) RFC 892 is an older version of the ISO Transport Protocol
Specification. Therefore this RFC should be assumed to
supercede RFC 892.

2) This document has been prepared by retyping the text of
ISO/TC97/SC16/N1576 and then applying proposed editorial
corrections contained in ISO/TC97/SC16/N1695. These two
documents, taken together, are undergoing voting within ISO
as a Draft International Standard (DIS).

3) Although this RFC has been reviewed after typing, and is
believed to be substantially correct, it is possible that
typographic errors not present in the ISO documents have been
overlooked.

Alex McKenzie
BBN



























Table of Contents




1 SCOPE AND FIELD OF APPLICATION........................ 3
1.1 This International Standard specifies:.............. 3
1.2 The procedures are defined in terms of:............. 4
1.3 .................................................... 4
1.4 .................................................... 5
2 REFERENCES............................................ 5
3 DEFINITIONS........................................... 6
3.1 .................................................... 6
3.2 .................................................... 6
3.2.1 equipment:........................................ 7
3.2.2 transport service user:........................... 7
3.2.3 network service provider:......................... 7
3.2.4 local matter:..................................... 7
3.2.5 initiator:........................................ 7
3.2.6 responder:........................................ 8
3.2.7 sending transport entity:......................... 8
3.2.8 receiving transport entity:....................... 8
3.2.9 preferred class:.................................. 8
3.2.10 alternative class:............................... 8
3.2.11 proposed class:.................................. 9
3.2.12 selected class:.................................. 9
3.2.13 proposed parameter:.............................. 9
3.2.14 selected parameter:.............................. 9
3.2.15 error indication:................................ 9
3.2.16 invalid TPDU:................................... 10
3.2.17 protocol error:................................. 10
3.2.18 sequence number:................................ 10
3.2.19 transmit window:................................ 10
3.2.20 lower window edge:.............................. 11
3.2.21 upper window edge:.............................. 11
3.2.22 upper window edge allocated to the peer
entity:
.................................................... 11
3.2.23 closed window:.................................. 11
3.2.24 window information:............................. 11
3.2.25 frozen reference:............................... 12
3.2.26 unassigned reference:........................... 12
3.2.27 transparent (data):............................. 12



i











3.2.28 owner (of a network connection):................ 12
3.2.29 retained TPDU:.................................. 12
4 SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS............................ 13
4.1 Data units......................................... 13
4.2 Types of transport protocol data units............. 13
4.3 TPDU fields........................................ 13
4.4 Times and associated variables..................... 14
4.5 Miscellaneous...................................... 14
5 OVERVIEW OF THE TRANSPORT PROTOCOL................... 15
5.1 Service provided by the transport layer............ 15
5.2 Service assumed from the network layer............. 16
5.3 Functions of the Transport Layer................... 18
5.3.1 Overview of functions............................ 18
5.3.1.1 Functions used at all times.................... 19
5.3.1.2 Connection Establishment....................... 19
5.3.1.3 Data Transfer.................................. 20
5.3.1.4 Release........................................ 21
5.4 Classes and options................................ 21
5.4.1 General.......................................... 21
5.4.2 Negotiation...................................... 22
5.4.3 Choice of network connection..................... 22
5.4.4 Characteristics of Class 0....................... 23
5.4.5 Characteristics of Class 1....................... 23
5.4.6 Characteristics of Class 2....................... 24
5.4.6.1 General........................................ 24
5.4.6.2 Use of explicit flow control................... 24
5.4.6.3 Non-use of explicit flow control............... 24
5.4.7 Characteristics of Class 3....................... 24
5.4.8 Characteristics of Class 4....................... 25
5.5 Model of the transport layer....................... 25
6 ELEMENTS OF PROCEDURE................................ 27
6.1 Assignment to network connection................... 27
6.1.1 Purpose.......................................... 27
6.1.2 Network service primitives....................... 27
6.1.3 Procedure........................................ 28
6.2 Transport protocol data unit (TPDU) transfer....... 29
6.2.1 Purpose.......................................... 29
6.2.2 Network Service Primitives....................... 30
6.2.3 Procedure........................................ 30
6.3 Segmenting and reassembling........................ 30
6.3.1 Purpose.......................................... 30
6.3.2 TPDUs and parameter used......................... 31
6.3.3 Procedure........................................ 31



ii











6.4 Concatenation and separation....................... 31
6.4.1 Purpose.......................................... 31
6.4.2 Procedure........................................ 32
6.5 Connection establishment........................... 32
6.5.1 Purpose.......................................... 32
6.5.2 Network service primitives....................... 33
6.5.3 TPDUs and parameters used........................ 33
6.5.4 Procedure........................................ 34
6.6 Connection refusal................................. 40
6.6.1 Purpose.......................................... 40
6.6.2 TPDUs and parameters used........................ 40
6.6.3 Procedure........................................ 41
6.7 Normal release..................................... 41
6.7.1 Purpose.......................................... 41
6.7.2 Network service primitives....................... 42
6.7.3 TPDUs and parameters used........................ 42
6.7.4 Procedure for implicit variant................... 43
6.7.5 Procedure for explicit variant................... 43
6.8 Error Release...................................... 44
6.8.1 Purpose.......................................... 45
6.8.2 Network service primitives....................... 45
6.8.3 Procedure........................................ 45
6.9 Association of TPDUs with transport
connections
.................................................... 45
6.9.1 Purpose.......................................... 45
6.9.2 Network service primitives....................... 46
6.9.3 TPDUs and parameters uses........................ 46
6.9.4 Procedures....................................... 46
6.9.4.1 Identification of TPDUs........................ 46
6.9.4.2 Association of individual TPDUs................ 47
6.10 Data TPDU numbering............................... 49
6.10.1 Purpose......................................... 49
6.10.2 TPDUs and parameters used....................... 49
6.10.3 Procedure....................................... 50
6.11 Expedited data transfer........................... 50
6.11.1 Purpose......................................... 50
6.11.2 Network service primitives...................... 50
6.11.3 TPDUs and parameter used........................ 51
6.11.4 Procedures...................................... 51
6.12 Reassignment after failure........................ 52
6.12.1 Purpose......................................... 52
6.12.2 Network service primitives...................... 52



iii











6.12.3 Procedure....................................... 52
6.12.4 Timers.......................................... 54
6.13 Retention until acknowledgement of TPDUs.......... 56
6.13.1 Purpose......................................... 56
6.13.2 Network service primitives...................... 56
6.13.3 TPDUs and parameters used....................... 56
6.13.4 Procedures...................................... 57
6.14 Resynchronization................................. 60
6.14.1 Purpose......................................... 60
6.14.2 Network service primitives...................... 60
6.14.3 TPDUs and parameters used....................... 60
6.14.4 Procedure....................................... 61
6.14.4.1 Active resynchronization procedures........... 61
6.14.4.2 Passive resynchronization procedures.......... 62
6.14.4.3 Data Resynchronization Procedures............. 63
6.15 Multiplexing and demultiplexing................... 64
6.15.1 Purpose......................................... 64
6.15.2 TPDUs and parameters used....................... 64
6.15.3 Procedure....................................... 65
6.16 Explicit Flow Control............................. 65
6.16.1 Purpose......................................... 65
6.16.2 TPDUs and parameters used....................... 65
6.16.3 Procedure....................................... 66
6.17 Checksum.......................................... 66
6.17.1 Purpose......................................... 66
6.17.2 TPDUs and parameters used....................... 66
6.17.3 Procedure....................................... 67
6.18 Frozen references................................. 68
6.18.1 Purpose......................................... 68
6.18.2 Procedure....................................... 68
6.18.2.1 Procedure for classes 0 and 2................. 68
6.18.2.2 Procedure for classes 1 and 3................. 69
6.18.2.3 Procedure for classes 4....................... 70
6.19 Retransmission on time-out........................ 70
6.19.1 Purpose......................................... 70
6.19.2 TPDUs used...................................... 70
6.19.3 Procedure....................................... 70
6.20 Resequencing...................................... 70
6.20.1 Purpose......................................... 71
6.20.2 TPDUs and parameters used....................... 71
6.20.3 Procedure....................................... 71
6.21 Inactivity control................................ 71
6.21.1 Purpose......................................... 71



iv











6.21.2 Procedure....................................... 72
6.22 Treatment of protocol errors...................... 72
6.22.1 Purpose......................................... 72
6.22.2 TPDUs and parameters used....................... 72
6.22.3 Procedure....................................... 72
6.23 Splitting and recombining......................... 74
6.23.1 Purpose......................................... 74
6.23.2 Procedure....................................... 74
7 Protocol Classes..................................... 76
8 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASS 0. SIMPLE CLASS.............. 79
8.1 Functions of class 0............................... 79
8.2 Procedures for class 0............................. 79
8.2.1 Procedures applicable at all times............... 79
8.2.2 Connection establishment......................... 79
8.2.3 Data transfer.................................... 80
8.2.4 Release.......................................... 80
9 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASS 1: BASIC ERROR
RECOVERY CLASS
.................................................... 81
9.1 Functions of Class 1............................... 81
9.2 Procedures for Class 1............................. 81
9.2.1 Procedures applicable at all times............... 81
9.2.2 Connection establishment......................... 82
9.2.3 Data Transfer.................................... 82
9.2.3.1 General........................................ 82
9.2.3.2 Expedited Data................................. 83
9.2.4 Release.......................................... 84
10 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASS 2 - MULTIPLEXING
CLASS
.................................................... 85
10.1 Functions of class 2.............................. 85
10.2 Procedures for class 2............................ 85
10.2.1 Procedures applicable at all times.............. 85
10.2.2 Connection establishment........................ 86
10.2.3 Data transfer when non use of explicit
flow control
.................................................... 86
10.2.4 Data transfer when use of explicit flow
control
.................................................... 86
10.2.4.1 General....................................... 86
10.2.4.2 Flow control.................................. 87
10.2.4.3 Expedited data................................ 88



v











10.2.5 Release......................................... 89
11 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASS 3: ERROR RECOVERY AND
MULTIPLEXING CLASS
.................................................... 90
11.1 Functions of Class 3.............................. 90
11.2 Procedures for Class 3............................ 90
11.2.1 Procedures applicable at all times.............. 90
11.2.2 Connection Establishment........................ 91
11.2.3 Data Transfer................................... 91
11.2.3.1 General....................................... 91
11.2.3.2 Use of RJ TPDU................................ 92
11.2.3.3 Flow Control.................................. 93
11.2.3.4 Expedited data................................ 93
11.2.4 Release......................................... 94
12 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASS 4: ERROR DETECTION
AND RECOVERY CLASS
.................................................... 95
12.1 Functions of Class 4.............................. 95
12.2 Procedures for Class 4............................ 95
12.2.1 Procedures available at all times............... 95
12.2.1.1 Timers used at all times...................... 95
12.2.1.1.1 NSDU lifetime (MLR, MRL).................... 98
12.2.1.1.2 Expected maximum transit delay (ELR,
ERL)
.................................................... 98
12.2.1.1.3 Acknowledge Time (AR, AL)................... 99
12.2.1.1.4 Local retransmission time (T1).............. 99
12.2.1.1.5 Persistence Time (R)........................ 99
12.2.1.1.6 Bound on References and Sequence
Numbers (L)
................................................... 100
12.2.1.2 General Procedures........................... 100
12.2.2 Procedures for Connection Establishment........ 102
12.2.2.1 Timers used in Connection Establishment...... 102
12.2.2.2 General Procedures........................... 103
12.2.3 Procedures for Data Transfer................... 104
12.2.3.1 Timers used in Data Transfer................. 104
12.2.3.2 General Procedures for data transfer......... 104
12.2.3.3 Inactivity Control........................... 105
12.2.3.4 Expedited Data............................... 105
12.2.3.5 Resequencing................................. 106
12.2.3.6 Explicit Flow Control........................ 107
12.2.3.7 Sequencing of received AK TPDUs.............. 108



vi











12.2.3.8 Procedure for transmission of AK TPDUs....... 109
12.2.3.8.1 Retransmission of AK TPDUs for window
synchronization
................................................... 109
12.2.3.8.2 Sequence control for transmission of
AK TPDUs
................................................... 109
12.2.3.8.3 Retransmission of AK TPDUs after CDT
set to zero
................................................... 110
12.2.3.8.4 Retransmission procedures following
reduction of the
................................................... 111
12.2.3.9 Use of Flow Control Confirmation
parameter
................................................... 112
12.2.4 Procedures for Release......................... 113
12.2.4.1 Timers used for Release...................... 113
12.2.4.2 General Procedures for Release............... 113
13 STRUCTURE AND ENCODING OF TPDUs.................... 114
13.1 Validity......................................... 114
13.2 Structure........................................ 116
13.2.1 Length indicator field......................... 117
13.2.2 Fixed part..................................... 117
13.2.2.1 General...................................... 117
13.2.2.2 TPDU code.................................... 117
13.2.3 Variable part.................................. 118
13.2.3.1 Checksum Parameter (Class 4 only)............ 120
13.2.4 Data Field..................................... 120
13.3 Connection Request (CR) TPDU..................... 120
13.3.1 Structure...................................... 120
13.3.2 LI............................................. 121
13.3.3 Fixed Part (Octets 2 to 7)..................... 121
13.3.4 Variable Part (Octets 8 to p).................. 122
13.3.5 User Data (Octets p+1 to the end).............. 127
13.4 Connection Confirm (CC) TPDU..................... 128
13.4.1 Structure...................................... 128
13.4.2 LI............................................. 128
13.4.3 Fixed Part (Octets 2 to 7)..................... 128
13.4.4 Variable Part (Octet 8 to p)................... 129
13.4.5 User Data (Octets p+1 to the end).............. 129
13.5 Disonnect Request (DR) TPDU...................... 129
13.5.1 Structure...................................... 129



vii











13.5.2 LI............................................. 129
13.5.3 Fixed Part (Octets 2 to 7...................... 130
13.5.4 Variable Part (Octets 8 to p).................. 131
13.5.5 User Data (Octets p+1 to the end).............. 131
13.6 Disconnect Confirm (DC) TPDU..................... 132
13.6.1 Structure...................................... 132
13.6.2 LI............................................. 132
13.6.3 Fixed Part (Octets 2 to 6)..................... 132
13.6.4 Variable Part.................................. 133
13.7 Data (DT) TPDU................................... 133
13.7.1 Structure...................................... 133
13.7.2 LI............................................. 134
13.7.3 Fixed Part..................................... 134
13.7.4 Variable Part.................................. 135
13.7.5 User Data Field................................ 135
13.8 Expedited Data (ED) TPDU......................... 135
13.8.1 Structure...................................... 135
13.8.2 LI............................................. 136
13.8.3 Fixed Part..................................... 136
13.8.4 Variable Part.................................. 137
13.8.5 User Data Field................................ 137
13.9 Data Acknowledgement (AK) TPDU................... 137
13.9.1 Structure...................................... 137
13.9.2 LI............................................. 138
13.9.3 Fixed Part..................................... 138
13.9.4 Variable Part.................................. 139
13.10 Expedited Data Acknowledgement (EA) TPDU........ 140
13.10.1 Structure..................................... 140
13.10.2 LI............................................ 141
13.10.3 Fixed Part.................................... 141
13.10.4 Variable Part................................. 141
13.11 Reject (RJ) TPDU................................ 141
13.11.1 Structure..................................... 142
13.11.2 LI............................................ 142
13.11.3 Fixed Part.................................... 142
13.11.4 Variable Part................................. 143
13.12 TPDU Error (ER) TPDU............................ 143
13.12.1 Structure..................................... 143
13.12.2 LI............................................ 143
13.12.3 Fixed Part.................................... 144
13.12.4 Variable Part................................. 144
14 CONFORMANCE........................................ 145
14.1 ................................................. 145



viii











14.2 ................................................. 145
14.3 ................................................. 145
14.4 ................................................. 145
14.5 ................................................. 146
14.6 Claims of Conformance Shall State................ 146









































ix











INTRODUCTION

The Transport Protocol Standard is one of a set of International
Standards produced to facilitate the interconnection of computer
systems. The set of standards covers the services and protocols
required to achieve such interconnection.

The Transport Protocol Standard is positioned with respect to
other related standards by the layers defined in the Reference
Model for Open Systems Interconnection (ISO 7498). It is most
closely related to, and lies within the field of application of
the Transport Service Standard (DP 8072). It also uses and makes
reference to the Network Service Standard (DP 8348), whose
provisions it assumes in order to accomplish the transport
protocol's aims. The interelationship of these standards is
depicted in figure 1.





-------------------------TRANSPORT SERVICE DEFINITION------------
Transport | --- Reference to aims --------------
Protocol |
Specification | --- Reference to assumptions -------
-------------------------NETWORK SERVICE DEFINITION--------------

Relationaship between Transport Protocol and adjacent services
Figure 1 .



The International Standard specifies a common encoding and a
number of classes of transport protocol procedures to be used
with different network qualities of service.

It is intended that the Transport Protocol should be simple but
general enough to cater for the total range of Network Service
qualities possible, without restricting future extensions.

The protocol is structured to give rise to classes of protocol
which are designed to minimize possible incompatibilities and
implementation costs.



1











The classes are selectable with respect to the Transport and
Network Services in providing the required quality of service for
the interconnection of two session entities (note that each class
provides a different set of functions for enhancement of service
qualities).

This protocol standard defines mechanisms that can be used to
optimize network tariffs and enhance the following qualities of
service:

a) different throughput rates;

b) different error rates;

c) integrity of data requirements;

d) reliability requirements.

It does not require an implementation to use all of these
mechanisms, nor does it define methods for measuring achieved
quality of service or criteria for deciding when to release
transport connections following quality of service degradation.

The primary aim of this International Standard is to provide a
set of rules for communication expressed in terms of the
procedures to be carried out by peer entities at the time of
communication. These rules for communication are intended to
provide a sound basis for development in order to serve a variety
of purposes:

a) as a guide for implementors and designers;

b) for use in the testing and procurement of equipment;

c) as part of an agreement for the admittance of systems into
the open systems environment;

d) as a refinement of the understanding of OSI.

It is expected that the initial users of the International
Standard will be designers and implementors of equipment and the
International Standard contains, in notes or in annexes, guidance
on the implementation of the procedures defined in the standard.



2











It should be noted that, as the number of valid protocol
sequences is very large, it is not possible with current
technology to verify that an implementation will operate the
protocol defined in this International Standard correctly under
all circumstances. It is possible by means of testing to
establish confidence that an implementation correctly operates
the protocol in a representative sample of circumstances. It is,
however, intended that this International Standard can be used in
circumstances where two implementations fail to communicate in
order to determine whether one or both have failed to operate the
protocol correctly.

This International Standard contains a section on conformance of
equipment claiming to implement the procedures in this
International Standard. Attention is drawn to the fact that the
standard does not contain any tests to demonstrate this
conformance.

The variations and options available within this International
Standard are essential to enable a Transport Service to be
provided for a wide variety of applications over a variety of
network qualities. Thus, a minimally conforming implementation
will not be suitable for use in all possible circumstances. It
is important, therefore, to qualify all references to this
International Standard with statements of the options provided or
required or with statements of the intended purpose of provision
or use.




1 SCOPE AND FIELD OF APPLICATION

1.1 This International Standard specifies:

a) five classes of procedures:

1) Class 0. Simple class;
2) Class 1. Basic error recovery class;
3) Class 2. Multiplexing class;
4) Class 3. Error recovery and multiplexing class;
5) Class 4. Error detection and recovery class,




3











for the connection oriented transfer of data and control
information from one transport entity to a peer transport
entity;

b) the means of negotiating the class of procedures to be
used by the transport entities;

c) the structure and encoding of the transport protocol data
units used for the transfer of data and control
information;




1.2 The procedures are defined in terms of:

a) the interactions between peer transport entities through
the exchange of transport protocol data units;

b) the interactions between a transport entity and the
transport service user in the same system through the
exchange of transport service primitives;

c) the interactions between a transport entity and the
network service provider through the exchange of network
service primitives.

These procedures are defined in the main text of the standard
supplemented by state tables in annex A.




1.3

These procedures are applicable to instances of communication
between systems which support the Transport Layer of the OSI
Reference Model and which wish to interconnect in an open systems
environment.







4











1.4

This International Standard also specifies conformance
requirements for systems implementing these procedures. It does
not contain tests which can be used to demonstrate this
conformance.




2 REFERENCES

ISO 7498 Information processing systems - Open systems
interconnection - Basic Reference Model

DP 8072 Information processing systems - Open systems
interconnection - Transport service definition

DP 8348 Information processing systems - Open systems
interconnection - Connection-oriented network service
definition.

























5











SECTION ONE. GENERAL




3 DEFINITIONS

NOTE - The definitions contained in this clause make use of
abbreviations defined in clause 4.




3.1

This International Standard is based on the concepts developed in
the Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (DIS 7498)
and makes use of the following terms defined in that standard:

a) concatenation and separation;

b) segmenting and reassembling;

c) multiplexing and demultiplexing;

d) splitting and recombining;

e) flow control.




3.2

For the purpose of this International Standard, the following
definitions apply:










6











3.2.1 equipment:

Hardware or software or a combination of both; it need not be
physically distinct within a computer system.




3.2.2 transport service user:

An abstract representation of the totality of those entities
within a single system that make use of the transport service.




3.2.3 network service provider:

An abstract machine that models the totality of the entities
providing the network service, as viewed by a transport entity.




3.2.4 local matter:

A decision made by a system concerning its behavior in the
Transport Layer that is not subject to the requirements of this
protocol.




3.2.5 initiator:

A transport entity that initiates a CR TPDU.










7











3.2.6 responder:

A transport entity with whom an initiator wishes to establish a
transport connection.

NOTE - Initiator and responder are defined with respect to a
single transport connection. A transport entity can be both an
initiator and responder simultaneously.




3.2.7 sending transport entity:

A transport entity that sends a given TPDU.




3.2.8 receiving transport entity:

A transport entity that receives a given TPDU.




3.2.9 preferred class:

The protocol class that the initiator indicates in a CR TPDU as
its first choice for use over the transport connection.




3.2.10 alternative class:

A protocol class that the initiator indicates in a CR TPDU as an
alternative choice for use over the transport connection.








8











3.2.11 proposed class:

A preferred class or an alternative class.




3.2.12 selected class:

The protocol class that the responder indicates in a CC TPDU that
it has chosen for use over the transport connection.




3.2.13 proposed parameter:

The value for a parameter that the initiator indicates in a CR
TPDU that it wishes to use over the transport connection.




3.2.14 selected parameter:

The value for a parameter that the responder indicates in a CC
TPDU that it has chosen for use over the transport connection.




3.2.15 error indication:

An N-RESET indication, or an N-DISCONNECT indication with a
reason code indicating an error, that a transport entity receives
from the NS-provider.










9











3.2.16 invalid TPDU:

A TPDU that does not comply with the requirements of this
International Standard for structure and encoding.




3.2.17 protocol error:

A TPDU whose use does not comply with the procedures for the
class.




3.2.18 sequence number:

a) The number in the TPDU-NR field of a DT TPDU that
indicates the order in which the DT TPDU was transmitted
by a transport entity.

b) The number in the YR-TU-NR field of an AK or RJ TPDU that
indicates the sequence number of the next DT TPDU expected
to be received by a transport entity.




3.2.19 transmit window:

The set of consecutive sequence numbers which a transport entity
has been authorized by its peer entity to send at a given time on
a given transport connection.












10











3.2.20 lower window edge:

The lowest sequence number in a transmit window.




3.2.21 upper window edge:

The sequence number which is one greater than the highest
sequence number in the transmit window.




3.2.22 upper window edge allocated to the peer entity:

The value that a transport entity communicates to its peer entity
to be interpreted as its new upper window edge.




3.2.23 closed window:

A transmit window that contains no sequence number.




3.2.24 window information:

Information contained in a TPDU relating to the upper and the
lower window edges.












11











3.2.25 frozen reference:

A reference that is not available for assignment to a connection
because of the requirements of 6.18.




3.2.26 unassigned reference:

A reference that is neither currently in use for identifying a
transport connection or which is in a frozen state.




3.2.27 transparent (data):

TS-user data that is transferred intact between transport
entities and which is unavailable for use by the transport
entities.




3.2.28 owner (of a network connection):

The transport entity that issued the N-CONNECT request leading to
the creation of that network connection.




3.2.29 retained TPDU:

A TPDU that is subject to the retransmission procedure or
retention until acknowledgement procedure and is available for
possible retransmission.








12











4 SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

4.1 Data units

TPDU Transport protocol data unit
TSDU Transport service data unit
NSDU Network service data unit




4.2 Types of transport protocol data units

CR TPDU Connection request TPDU
CC TPDU Connection confirm TPDU
DR TPDU Disconnect request TPDU
DC TPDU Disconnect confirm TPDU
DT TPDU Data TPDU
ED TPDU Expedited data TPDU
AK TPDU Data acknowledge TPDU
EA TPDU Expedited acknowledge TPDU
RJ TPDU Reject TPDU
ER TPDU Error TPDU




4.3 TPDU fields

LI Length indicator (field)
CDT Credit (field)
TSAP-ID Transport service access point
identifier (field)
DST-REF Destination reference (field)
SRC-REF Source reference (field)
EOT End of TSDU mark
TPDU-NR DT TPDU number (field)
ED-TPDU-NR ED TPDU number (field)
YR-TU-NR Sequence number response (field)
YR-EDTU-NR ED TPDU number response (field)






13











4.4 Times and associated variables

T1 Elapsed time between retransmissions
N The maximum number of transmissions
L Bound on reference
I Inactivity time
W Window time
TTR Time to try reassignment/resynchronization
TWR Time to wait for
reassignment/resynchronization
TS1 Supervisory timer 1
TS2 Supervisory time 2
MLR NSDU lifetime local-to-remote
MRL NSDU lifetime remote-to-local
ELR Expected maximum transit delay
local-to-remote
ERL Expected maximum transit delay
remote-to-local
R Persistence time
AL Local acknowledgement time
AR Remote acknowledgement time





4.5 Miscellaneous


TS-user Transport service user
TSAP Transport service access point
NS-provider Network service provider
NSAP Network service access point
QOS Quality of service












14











5 OVERVIEW OF THE TRANSPORT PROTOCOL

NOTE - This overview is not exhaustive and has been provided for
guidance to the reader of this International Standard.




5.1 Service provided by the transport layer

The protocol specified in this International Standard supports
the transport service defined in DP 8072.

Information is transferred to and from the TS-user in the
transport service primitives listed in table 1.































15















+-------------------------------------------------------------+
| Primitive | Parameter |
|--------------------------------|----------------------------|
|T-CONNECT request | Called Address, |
| indication | Calling Address, |
| | Expedited Data option, |
| | Quality of Service, |
| | TS User-Data. |
|--------------------------------|----------------------------|
|T-CONNECT response | Responding Address, |
| confirm | Quality of Service, |
| | Expedited Data option, |
| | TS User-Data. |
|--------------------------------|----------------------------|
|T-DATA request | TS User-Data. |
| indication | |
|--------------------------------|----------------------------|
|T-EXPEDITED DATA request | TS User-Data. |
| indication | |
|--------------------------------|----------------------------|
|T-DISCONNECT request | TS User-Data. |
|--------------------------------|----------------------------|
|T-DISCONNECT indication | Disconnect reason, |
| | TS User-Data. |
+--------------------------------|----------------------------+

Table 1. Transport service primitives





5.2 Service assumed from the network layer

The protocol specified in this International Standard assumes the
use of the network service defined in DP 8348.

Information is transferred to and from the NS-provider in the
network service primitives listed in table 2.



16















+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| Primitives |X/Y| Parameters |X/Y/Z|
|----------------------------|---|------------------------|-----|
|N-CONNECT request | X | Called Address, | X |
| indication | X | Calling Address, | X |
| response | X | NS User-Data, | Z |
| confirm | X | QOS parameter set, | X |
| | | Responding address, | Z |
| | | Receipt confirmation | Y |
| | | selection. | |
|----------------------------|---|------------------------|-----|
|N-DATA request | X | NS User-Data, | X |
| indication | X | Confirmation request | Y |
|----------------------------|---|------------------------|-----|
|N-DATA ACKNOWLEDGE | | | |
| request | Y | | |
| indication | Y | | |
|----------------------------|---|------------------------|-----|
|N-EXPEDITED DATA | | | |
| request | Y | NS User-Data. | Y |
| indication | Y | | |
|----------------------------|---|------------------------|-----|
|N-RESET request | X | Originator, | Z |
| indication | X | Reason. | Z |
| response | X | | |
| confirm | X | | |
|----------------------------|---|------------------------|-----|
|N-DISCONNECT request | X | NS User-Data. | Z |
| indication | X | Originator, | Z |
| | | Reason. | Z |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
Table 2. Network service primitives










17











Key:

X - The Transport Protocol assumes that this facility is
provided in all networks.

Y - The Transport Protocol assumes that this facility is
provided in some networks and a mechanism is provided to
optionally use the facility.

Z - The Transport Protocol does not use this parameter.

NOTES:

1 - The parameters listed in this table are those in the
current network service (first DP 8348).

2 - The way the parameters are exchanged between the transport
entity and the NS-provider is a local matter.




5.3 Functions of the Transport Layer

5.3.1 Overview of functions

The functions in the Transport Layer are those necessary to
bridge the gap between the services available from the Network
Layer and those to be offered to the TS-users.

The functions in the Transport Layer are concerned with the
enhancement of quality of service, including aspects of cost
optimization.

These functions are grouped below into those used at all times
during a transport connection and those concerned with connection
establishment, data transfer and release.

NOTE - This International Standard does not include the following
functions which are under consideration for inclusion in future
editions of this standard:

a) encryption;



18











b) accounting mechanisms;

c) status exchanges and monitoring of QOS;

d) blocking;

e) temporary release of network connections;

f) alternative checksum algorithm.




5.3.1.1 Functions used at all times

The following functions, depending upon the selected class and
options, are used at all times during a transport connection:

a) transmission of TPDUs (see 6.2 and 6.9);

b) multiplexing and demultiplexing (see 6.15), a function
used to share a single network connection between two or
more transport connections;

c) error detection (see 6.10, 6.13 and 6.17), a function used
to detect the loss, corruption, duplication, misordering
or misdelivery of TPDUs;

d) error recovery (see 6.12, 6.14, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21 and
6.22), a function used to recover from detected and
signalled errors.




5.3.1.2 Connection Establishment

The purpose of connection establishment is to establish a
transport connection between two TS-users. The following
functions of the transport layer during this phase must match the
TS-users' requested quality of service with the services offered
by the network layer:




19











a) select network service which best matches the requirement
of the TS-user taking into account charges for various
services (see 6.5);

b) decide whether to multiplex multiple transport connections
onto a single network connection (see 6.5);

c) establish the optimum TPDU size (see 6.5);

d) select the functions that will be operational upon
entering the data transfer phase (see 6.5);

e) map transport addresses onto network addresses;

f) provide a means to distinguish between two different
transport connections (see 6.5);

g) transport of TS-user data (see 6.5).




5.3.1.3 Data Transfer

The purpose of data transfer is to permit duplex transmission of
TSDUs between the two TS-users connected by the transport
connection. This purpose is achieved by means of two-way
simultaneous communication and by the following functions, some
of which are used or not used in accordance with the result of
the selection performed in connection establishment:

a) concatenation and separation (see 6.4), a function used to
collect several TPDUs into a single NSDU at the sending
transport entity and to separate the TPDUs at the
receiving transport entity;

b) segmenting and reassembling (see 6.3), a function used to
segment a single data TSDU into multiple TPDUs at the
sending transport entity and to reassemble them into their
original format at the receiving transport entity;






20











c) splitting and recombining (see 6.23), a function allowing
the simultaneous use of two or more network connections to
support the same transport connection;

d) flow control (see 6.16), a function used to regulate the
flow of TPDUs between two transport entities on one
transport connection;

e) transport connection identification, a means to uniquely
identify a transport connection between the pair of
transport entities supporting the connection during the
lifetime of the transport connection;

f) expedited data (see 6.11), a function used to bypass the
flow control of normal data TPDU. Expedited data TPDU
flow is controlled by separate flow control;

g) TSDU delimiting (see 6.3), a function used to determine
the beginning and ending of a TSDU.




5.3.1.4 Release

The purpose of release (see 6.7 and 6.8) is to provide
disconnection of the transport connection, regardless of the
current activity.




5.4 Classes and options

5.4.1 General

The functions of the Transport Layer have been organized into
classes and options.

A class defines a set of functions. Options define those
functions within a class which may or may not be used.

This International Standard defines five classes of protocol:



21











a) Class 0: Simple Class;

b) Class 1: Basic Error recovery Class;

c) Class 2: Multiplexing Class;

d) Class 3: Error Recovery and Multiplexing Class;

e) Class 4: Error Detection and Recovery Class.

NOTE - Transport connections of classes 2, 3 and 4 may be
multiplexed together onto the same network connection.




5.4.2 Negotiation

The use of classes and options is negotiated during connection
establishment. The choice made by the transport entities will
depend upon:

a) the TS-users' requirements expressed via T-CONNECT service
primitives;

b) the quality of the available network services;

c) the user required service versus cost ratio acceptable to
the TS-user.




5.4.3 Choice of network connection

The following list classifies network services in terms of
quality with respect to error behavior in relation to user
requirements; its main purpose is to provide a basis for the
decision regarding which class of transport protocol should be
used in conjunction with given network connection:






22











a) Type A. Network connection with acceptable residual error
rate (for example not signalled by disconnect or reset)
and acceptable rate of signalled errors.

b) Type B. Network connections with acceptable residual
error rate (for example not signalled by disconnect or
reset) but unacceptable rate of signalled errors.

c) Type C. Network connections with unacceptable residual
error rate.

It is assumed that each transport entity is aware of the quality
of service provided by particular network connections.




5.4.4 Characteristics of Class 0

Class 0 provides the simplest type of transport connection and is
fully compatible with the CCITT recommendation S.70 for teletex
terminals.

Class 0 has been designed to be used with type A network
connections.




5.4.5 Characteristics of Class 1

Class 1 provides a basic transport connection with minimal
overheads.

The main purpose of the class is to recover from network
disconnect or reset.

Selection of this class is usually based on reliability criteria.
Class 1 has been designed to be used with type B network
connections.






23











5.4.6 Characteristics of Class 2

5.4.6.1 General

Class 2 provides a way to multiplex several transport connections
onto a single network connection. This class has been designed
to be used with type A network connections.




5.4.6.2 Use of explicit flow control

The objective is to provide flow control to help avoid congestion
at transport-connection-end-points and on the network connection.
Typical use is when traffic is heavy and continuous, or when
there is intensive multiplexing. Use of flow control can
optimize response times and resource utilization.




5.4.6.3 Non-use of explicit flow control

The objective is to provide a basic transport connection with
minimal overheads suitable when explicit disconnection of the
transport connection is desirable. The option would typically be
used for unsophisticated terminals, and when no multiplexing onto
network connections is required. Expedited data is never
available.




5.4.7 Characteristics of Class 3

Class 3 provides the characteristics of Class 2 plus the ability
to recover from network disconnect or reset. Selection of this
class is usually based upon reliability criteria. Class 3 has
been designed to be used with type B network connections.






24











5.4.8 Characteristics of Class 4

Class 4 provides the characteristics of Class 3, plus the
capability to detect and recover from errors which occur as a
result of the low grade of service available from the NS-
provider. The kinds of errors to be detected include: TPDU
loss, TPDU delivery out of sequence, TPDU duplication and TPDU
corruption. These errors may affect control TPDUs as well as
data TPDUs.

This class also provides for increased throughput capability and
additional resilience against network failure. Class 4 has been
designed to be used with type C network connections.




5.5 Model of the transport layer

A transport entity communicates with its TS-users through one or
more TSAPs by means of the service primitives as defined by the
transport service definition DP 8072. Service primitives will
cause or be the result of transport protocol data unit exchanges
between the peer transport entities supporting a transport
connection. These protocol exchanges are effected using the
services of the Network Layer as defined by the Network Service
Definition DP 8348 through one or more NSAPs.

Transport connection endpoints are identified in end systems by
an internal, implementation dependent, mechanism so that the TS-
user and the transport entity can refer to each transport
connection.














25















+------+ +------+
----------| TSAP |------------------------| TSAP |----------
+------+ +------+
| |
+---------------+ +---------------+
| Transport | | Transport |
| entity | | entity |
+---------------+ +---------------+
| |
| |
+------+ +------+
----------| NSAP |------------------------| NSAP |----------
+------+ +------+
| |
+-------------------------------+

Figure 2 . Model of the transport layer



NOTE - For purpose of illustration, this figure shows only one
TSAP and one NSAP for each transport entity. In certain
instances, more than one TSAP and/or more than one NSAP may be
associated with a particular transport entity.


















26











SECTION TWO. TRANSPORT PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION




6 ELEMENTS OF PROCEDURE

This clause contains elements of procedure which are used in the
specification of protocol classes in clauses 7 to 12. These
elements are not meaningful on their own.

The procedures define the transfer of TPDUs whose structure and
coding is specified in clause 13. Transport entities shall
accept and respond to any TPDU received in a valid NSDU and may
issue TPDUs initiating specific elements of procedure specified
in this clause.

NOTE - Where network service primitives and TPDUs and parameters
used are not significant for a particular element of procedure,
they have not been included in the specification.




6.1 Assignment to network connection

6.1.1 Purpose

The procedure is used in all classes to assign transport
connections to network connections.




6.1.2 Network service primitives

The procedure makes use of the following network service
primitives:

a) N-CONNECT;

b) N-DISCONNECT.




27











6.1.3 Procedure

Each transport connection shall be assigned to a network
connection. The initiator may assign the transport connection to
an existing network connection of which it is the owner or to a
new network connection (see Note 1) which it creates for this
purpose.

The initiator shall not assign or reassign the transport
connection to an existing network connection if the protocol
class(es) proposed or the class in use for the transport
connection are incompatible with the current usage of the network
connection with respect to multiplexing (see Note 2).

During the resynchronization (see 6.14) and reassignment after
failure (see 6.12) procedures, a transport entity may reassign a
transport connection to another network connection joining the
same NSAPs, provided that it is the owner of the network
connection and that the transport connection is assigned to only
one network connection at any given time.

During the splitting procedure (see 6.23), a transport entity may
assign a transport connection to any additional network
connection joining the same NSAPs, provided that it is the owner
of the network connection and that multiplexing is possible on
the network connection.

The responder becomes aware of the assignment when it receives

a) a CR TPDU during the connection establishment procedure
(see 6.5); or

b) an RJ TPDU or a retransmitted CR or DR TPDU during the
resynchronization (see 6.14) and reassignment after
failure (see 6.12) procedures; or

c) any TPDU when splitting (see 6.23) is used.









28











NOTES

1. When a new network connection is created, the quality of
service requested is a local matter, although it will
normally be related to the requirements of transport
connection(s) expected to be assigned to it.

2. An existing network connection may also not be suitable
if, for example, the quality of service requested for the
transport connection cannot be attained by using or
enhancing the network connection.

3. A network connection with no transport connection(s)
assigned to it, may be available after initial
establishment, or because all of the transport connections
previously assigned to it have been released. It is
recommended that only the owner of such a network
connection should release it. Furthermore, it is
recommended that it not be released immediately after the
transmission of the final TPDU of a transport connection -
either a DR TPDU in response to CR TPDU or a DC TPDU in
response to DR TPDU. An appropriate delay will allow the
TPDU concerned to reach the other transport entity
allowing the freeing of any resources associated with the
transport connection concerned.

4. After the failure of a network connection, transport
connections which were previously multiplexed together may
be assigned to different network connections, and vice
versa.




6.2 Transport protocol data unit (TPDU) transfer

6.2.1 Purpose

The TPDU transfer procedure is used in all classes to convey
transport protocol data units in user data fields of network
service primitives.





29











6.2.2 Network Service Primitives

The procedure uses the following network service primitives:

a) N-DATA;

b) N-EXPEDITED DATA




6.2.3 Procedure

The transport protocol data units (TPDUs) defined for the
protocol are listed in 4.2.

When the network expedited variant has been selected for class 1,
the transport entities shall transmit and receive ED and EA TPDUs
as NS-user data parameters of N-EXPEDITED DATA primitives.

In all other cases, transport entities shall transmit and receive
TPDUs as NS-user data parameters of N-DATA primitives.

When a TPDU is put into an NS-user data parameter, the
significance of the bits within an octet and the order of octets
within a TPDU shall be as defined in 13.2.

NOTE - TPDUs may be concatenated (see 6.4).




6.3 Segmenting and reassembling

6.3.1 Purpose

The segmenting and reassembling procedure is used in all classes
to map TSDUs onto TPDUs.








30











6.3.2 TPDUs and parameter used

The procedure makes use of the following TPDU and parameter:

DT TPDUs;

- End of TSDU.




6.3.3 Procedure

A transport entity shall map a TSDU on to an ordered sequence of
one or more DT TPDUs. This sequence shall not be interrupted by
other DT TPDUs on the same transport connection.

All DT TPDUs except the last DT TPDU in a sequence greater than
one shall have a length of data greater than zero.

NOTES

1. The EOT parameter of a DT TPDU indicates whether or not
there are subsequent DT TPDUs in the sequence.

2. There is no requirement that the DT TPDUs shall be of the
maximum length selected during connection establishment.




6.4 Concatenation and separation

6.4.1 Purpose

The procedure for concatenation and separation is used in classes
1, 2, 3 and 4 to convey multiple TPDUs in one NSDU.









31











6.4.2 Procedure

A transport entity may concatenate TPDUs from the same or
different transport connections.

The set of concatenated TPDUs may contain:

a) any number of TPDUs from the following list: AK, EA, RJ,
ER, DC TPDUs, provided that these TPDUs come from
different transport connections;

b) no more than one TPDU from the following list: CR, DR,
CC, DT, ED TPDUs; if this TPDU is present, it shall be
placed last in the set of concatenated TPDUs.

NOTES

1. The TPDUs within a concatenated set may be distinguished
by means of the length indicator parameter.

2. The end of a TPDU containing data is indicated by the
termination of the NSDU.

3. The number of concatenated TPDUs referred to in 6.4.2.a is
bounded by the maximum number of transport connections
which are multiplexed together except during assignment or
reassignment.




6.5 Connection establishment

6.5.1 Purpose

The procedure for connection establishment is used in all classes
to create a new transport connection.









32











6.5.2 Network service primitives

The procedure uses the following network service primitive:

N-DATA




6.5.3 TPDUs and parameters used

The procedure uses the following TPDUs and parameters:

a) CR TPDU;

- CDT;
- DST-REF (set to zero);
- SRC-REF
- CLASS and OPTIONS (i.e. preferred class, use of extended
format, non-use of explicit flow control in class 2);
- calling TSAP-ID;
- called TSAP-ID;
- TPDU size (proposed);
- version number;
- security parameter;
- checksum;
- additional option selection (i.e. use of network
expedited in class 1, use of receipt confirmation in
class 1, non-use of checksum in class 4, use of
transport expedited data transfer service);
- alternative protocol class(es);
- acknowledge time;
- throughput (proposed);
- residual error rate (proposed);
- priority (proposed);
- transit delay (proposed);
- reassignment time;
- user data.

b) CC TPDU;

- CDT;
- DST-REF;



33











- SRC-REF;
- CLASS and OPTIONS (selected);
- calling TSAP-ID;
- called TSAP-ID;
- TPDU size (selected);
- security parameter;
- checksum;
- additional option selection (selected);
- acknowledge time;
- throughput (selected);
- residual error rate (selected);
- priority (selected);
- transit delay (selected);
- user data.

NOTE - The transport service defines transit delay as
requiring a previously stated average TSDU size as a basis
for any specification. This protocol, as specified in
13.3.4(n), uses a value of 128 octets. Conversion to and
from specifications based upon some other value is a local
matter.




6.5.4 Procedure

A transport connection is established by means of one transport
entity (the initiator) transmitting a CR TPDU to the other
transport entity (the responder), which replies with a CC TPDU.

Before sending the CR TPDU, the initiator assigns the transport
connection being created to one (or more if the splitting
procedure is being use) network connection(s). It is this set of
network connections over which the TPDUs are sent. During this
exchange, all information and parameters needed for the transport
entities to operate shall be exchanged or negotiated.

NOTE - Except in class 4, it is recommended that the
initiator starts an optional timer TS1 at the time the CR
TPDU is sent. This timer should be stopped when the
connection is considered as accepted or refused or
unsuccessful. If the timer expires, the initiator should



34











reset or disconnect the network connection and, in classes 1
and 3 freeze the reference (see 6.18). For all other
transport connection(s) multiplexed on the same network
connection the procedures for reset or disconnect as
appropriate should be followed.

After receiving the CC TPDU for a class which includes the
procedure for retention until acknowledgement of TPDUs the
initiator shall acknowledge the CC TPDU as defined in table 5
(see 6.13).

When the network expedited variant of the expedited data transfer
(see 6.11) has been agreed (possible in class 1 only), the
responder shall not send an ED TPDU before the CC TPDU is
acknowledged.

The following information is exchanged:

a) references. Each transport entity chooses a reference
which is to be used by the peer entity is 16 bits long and
which is arbitrary except for the following restrictions:

1) it shall not already be in use or frozen (see 6.18),

2) it shall not be zero.

This mechanism is symmetrical and provides identification
of the transport connection independent of the network
connection. The range of references used for transport
connections, in a given transport entity, is a local
matter.

b) addresses (optional). Indicate the calling and called
transport service access points. When either network
address unambiguously defines the transport address this
information may be omitted.

c) initial credit. Only relevant for classes which include
the explicit flow control function.

d) user data. Not available if Class 0 is the preferred
class (see note). Up to 32 octets in other classes.




35











NOTE - If class 0 is a valid response according to table
3, inclusion of user data in the CR TPDU may cause the
responding entity to refuse the connection (e.g. if it
only supports class 0).

e) acknowledgement time. Only in class 4.

f) checksum parameter. Only in class 4.

g) security parameter. This parameter and its semantics are
user defined.

The following negotiations take place:

h) protocol class. The initiator shall propose a preferred
class and may propose any number of alternative class
which permit a valid response as defined in table 3. The
initiator should assume when it sends the CR TPDU that its
preferred class will be agreed to, and commence the
procedures associated with that class, except that if
class 0 or class 1 is an alternative class, multiplexing
shall not commence until a CC TPDU selecting the use of
classes 2, 3 or 4 has been received.

NOTE - This means, for example, that when the preferred
class includes resynchronization (see 6.14) the
resynchronization will occur if a reset is signalled
during connection establishment.

The responder shall select one class defined in table 3 as a
valid response corresponding to the preferred class and to the
class(es), if any, contained in the alternative class parameter
of the CR TPDU. It shall indicate the selected class in the CC
TPDU and shall follow the procedures for the selected class.

If the preferred class is not selected, then on receipt of the CC
TPDU the initiator shall adjust its operation according the
procedures of the selected class.








36















+------------------------------------------------------------+
| Pre- | Alternative class |
|ferred |----------------------------------------------------|
|class | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | none |
|-------|--------|--------|--------|--------|--------|-------|
| 0 |not |not |not |not |not |class |
| |valid |valid |valid |valid |valid | 0 |
|-------|--------|--------|--------|--------|--------|-------|
| 1 |class |class |not |not |not |class |
| |1 or 0 |1 or 0 |valid |valid |valid |1 or 0 |
|-------|--------|--------|--------|--------|--------|-------|
| 2 |class |not |class |not |not |class |
| |2 or 0 |valid |2 |valid |valid | 2 |
|-------|--------|--------|--------|--------|--------|-------|
| 3 |class |class 3,|class |class |not |class |
| |3,2 or 0|2,1 or 0|3 or 2 |3 or 2 |valid |3 or 2 |
|-------|--------|--------|--------|--------|--------|-------|
| 4 |class |class 4,|class |class |class |class |
| |4,2 or 0|2,1 or 0|4 or 2 |4,3 or 2|4 or 2 |4 or 2 |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
Table 3.




Valid responses corresponding to the preferred class and any
alternative class proposed in the CR TPDU


NOTES:

1. The valid responses indicated in table 3 result from both
explicit negotiation, whereby each of the classes proposed
is a valid response, and implicit negotiation whereby:

a) if class 3 or 4 is proposed then class 2 is a valid
response;
b) if class 1 is proposed then class 0 is a valid
response.



37











2. Negotiation from class 2 to class 1 and from any class to
an higher-numbered class is not valid.

3. Redundant combinations are not a protocol error.

j) TPDU size. The initiator may propose a maximum size for
TPDUs, and the responder may accept this value or respond
with any value between 128 and the proposed value in the
set of values available (see 13.3.4.b).

NOTE - The length of the CR TPDU does not exceed 128
octets (see 13.3).

k) normal or extended format. Either normal or extended is
available. When extended is used this applies to CDT,
TPDU-NR, ED-TPDU-NR, YR-TU-NR and YR-EDTU-NR parameters.

m) checksum selection. This defines whether or not TPDUs of
the connection are to include a checksum.

n) quality of service parameters. This defines the
throughput, transit delay, priority and residual error
rate.

p) the non-use of explicit flow control in class 2.

q) the use of network receipt confirmation and network
expedited when class 1 is to be used.

r) use of expedited data transfer service. This allows both
TS-users to negotiate the use or non-use of the expedited
data transport service as defined in the transport service
(ISO 8072).

The following information is sent only in the CR TPDU:

s) version number. This defines the version of the transport
protocol standard used for this connection.

t) reassignment time parameter. This indicates the time for
which the initiator will persist in following the
reassignment after failure procedure.




38











The negotiation rules for the options are such that the initiator
may propose either to use or not to use the option. The
responder may either accept the proposed choice or select an
alternative choice as defined in table 4.

In class 2, whenever a transport entity requests or agrees to the
transport expedited data transfer service or to the use of
extended formats, it shall also request or agree (respectively)
to the use of explicit flow control.





+-------------------------------------------------------------+
| Option | Proposal Made | Valid Selection |
| | by the Initiator | by the Responder |
|-----------------------|------------------|------------------|
|Transport expedited | Yes | Yes or No |
|data transfer service | No | No |
|(Classes 1,2,3,4 only) | | |
|-----------------------|------------------|------------------|
|Use of receipt confir- | Yes | Yes or No |
|mation (Class 1 only) | No | No |
|-----------------------|------------------|------------------|
|Use of the network | Yes | Yes or No |
|expedited variant | No | No |
|(Class 1 only) | | |
|-----------------------|------------------|------------------|
|Non-use of checksum | Yes | Yes or No |
|(Class 4 only) | No | No |
|-----------------------|------------------|------------------|
|Non-use of explicit | Yes | Yes or No |
|flow control | No | No |
|(Class 2 only) | | |
|-----------------------|------------------|------------------|
|Use of extended format | Yes | Yes or No |
|(Classes 2,3,4 only) | No | No |
+-------------------------------------------------------------+

Table 4. Negotiation of options during connection establishment





39











NOTE - Table 4 defines the procedures for negotiation of options.
This negotiation has been designed such that if the initiator
proposes the mandatory implementation option specified in clause
14, the responder has to accept use of this option over the
transport connection except for the use of the transport
expedited data transfer service which may be rejected by the TS-
user. If the initiator proposes a non-mandatory implementation
option, the responder is entitled to select use of the mandatory
implementation option for use over the transport connection.




6.6 Connection refusal

6.6.1 Purpose

The connection refusal procedure is used in all classes when a
transport entity refuses a transport connection in response to a
CR TPDU.




6.6.2 TPDUs and parameters used

The procedure makes use of the following TPDUs and parameters:

a) DR TPDU;

- SRC-REF;
- reason;
- user data.

b) ER TPDU;

- reject code;
- rejected TPDU parameter.








40











6.6.3 Procedure

If a transport connection cannot be accepted, the responder shall
respond to the CR TPDU with a DR TPDU. The reason shall indicate
why the connection was not accepted. The source reference field
in the DR TPDU shall be set to zero to indicate an unassigned
reference.

If a DR TPDU is received the initiator shall regard the
connection as released.

The responder shall respond to an invalid CR TPDU by sending an
ER or DR TPDU. If an ER TPDU is received in response to a CR
TPDU, the initiator shall regard the connection as released.

NOTES

1. When the invalid CR TPDU can be identified as having class 0
as the preferred class, it is recommended to respond with an
ER TPDU. For all other invalid CR TPDUs either an ER TPDU or
DR TPDU may be sent.

2. If the optimal supervisory timer TS1 has been set for this
connection then the entity should stop the timer on receipt
of the DR or ER TPDU.




6.7 Normal release

6.7.1 Purpose

The release procedure is used by a transport entity in order to
terminate a transport connection. The implicit variant is used
only in class 0. The explicit variant is used in classes 1,2,3
and 4.









41











NOTES

1. When the implicit variant is used (i.e. in class 0), the
lifetime of the transport connection is directly correlated
with the lifetime of the network connection.

2. The use of the explicit variant of the release procedure
enables the transport connection to be released independently
of the underlying network connection.




6.7.2 Network service primitives

The procedure makes use of the following network service
primitives:

a) N-DISCONNECT (implicit variant only),

b) N-DATA




6.7.3 TPDUs and parameters used

The procedure makes use of the following TPDUs and parameters:

a) DR TPDU;

- clearing reason;
- user data;
- SRC-REF;
- DST-REF.

b) DC TPDU.









42











6.7.4 Procedure for implicit variant

In the implicit variant either transport entity disconnects a
transport connection by disconnecting the network connection to
which it is assigned. When a transport entity receives an N-
DISCONNECT this should be considered as the release of the
transport connection.




6.7.5 Procedure for explicit variant

When the release of a transport connection is to be initiated a
transport entity

a) if it has previously sent or received a CC TPDU (see note
1), shall send a DR TPDU. It shall ignore all
subsequently received TPDUs other than a DR or DC TPDU.
On receipt of a DR or DC TPDU it shall consider the
transport connection released;

b) in other cases it shall:

1) For classes other than class 4 wait for the
acknowledgement of the outstanding CR TPDU; if it
receives a CC TPDU, it shall follow the procedures in
6.7.5.a.


2) For class 4 either send a DR TPDU with a zero value in
the DST-REF field or follow the procedure in
6.7.5.b.1.

A transport entity that receives a DR TPDU shall

c) if it has previously sent a DR TPDU for the same transport
connection, consider the transport connection released;

d) if it has previously sent a CR TPDU that has not been
acknowledged by a CC TPDU, consider the connection refused
(see 6.6).




43











e) in other cases, send a DC TPDU and consider the transport
connection released.

NOTES

1) This requirement ensures that the transport entity is
aware of the remote reference for the transport
connection.

2) When the transport connection is considered as released
the local reference is either available for re-use or is
frozen (see 6.18).

3) After the release of a transport connection the network
connection can be released or retained to enable its re-
use for the assignment of other transport connections (see
6.1.).

4) Except in class 4, it is recommended that, if a transport
entity does not receive acknowledgement of a DR TPDU
within time TS2, it should either reset or disconnect the
network connection, and freeze the reference when
appropriate (see 6.18). For all other transport
connection(s) multiplexed on this network connection the
procedures for reset or disconnect as appropriate should
be followed.

5) When a transport entity is waiting for a CC TPDU before
sending a DR TPDU and the network connection is reset or
released, it should consider the transport connection
released and, in classes other than classes 0 and 2,
freeze the reference (see 6.18).




6.8 Error Release









44











6.8.1 Purpose

This procedure is used only in classes 0 and 2 to release a
transport connection on the receipt of an N-DISCONNECT or N-RESET
indication.




6.8.2 Network service primitives

The procedure makes use of the following service primitives:

a) N-DISCONNECT indication;

b) N-RESET indication.




6.8.3 Procedure

When, on the network connection to which a transport connection
is assigned, an N-DISCONNECT or N-RESET indication is received,
both transport entities shall consider that the transport
connection is released and so inform the TS-users.

NOTE - In other classes, since error recovery is used, the
receipt of an N-RESET indication or N-DISCONNECT indication will
result in the invocation of the error recovery procedure.




6.9 Association of TPDUs with transport connections

6.9.1 Purpose

This procedure is used in all classes to interpret a received
NSDU as TPDU(s) and, if possible, to associate each such TPDU
with a transport connection.





45











6.9.2 Network service primitives

This procedure makes use of the following network service
primitives:

a) N-DATA indication;

b) N-EXPEDITED DATA indication.





6.9.3 TPDUs and parameters uses

This procedure makes use of the following TPDUs and parameters:

a) any TPDU except CR TPDU, DT TPDU in classes 0 or 1 and AK
TPDU in class 1;

- DST-REF

b) CR, CC, DR and DC TPDUs;

- SCR-REF.

c) DT TPDU in classes 0 or 1 and AK TPDU in class 1.




6.9.4 Procedures

6.9.4.1 Identification of TPDUs

If the received NSDU or Expedited NSDU cannot be decoded (i.e.
does not contain one or more correct TPDUs) or is corrupted (i.e.
contains a TPDU with a wrong checksum) then the transport entity
shall:







46











a) if the network connection on which the error is detected
has a class 0 or class 1 transport connection assigned to
it, then treat as a protocol error (see 6.22) for that
transport connection;

b) otherwise

1) if the NSDU can be decoded but contains corrupted
TPDUs, ignore the TPDUs (class 4 only) and optionally
apply 6.9.4.b.2.

2) if the NSDU cannot be decoded issue an N-RESET or N-
DISCONNECT request for the network connection and for
all the transport connections assigned to this network
connection (if any), apply the procedures defined for
handling of network signalled reset or disconnect.

If the NSDU can be decoded and is not corrupted, the
transport entity shall:

c) if the network connection on which the NSDU was received
has a class 0 transport connection assigned to it, then
consider the NSDU as forming TPDU and associate the TPDU
with the transport connection (see 6.9.4.2).

d) otherwise, invoke the separation procedures and for each
of the individual TPDUs in the order in which they appear
in the NSDU apply the procedure defined in 6.9.4.2.




6.9.4.2 Association of individual TPDUs

If the received TPDU is a CR TPDU then, if it is a duplicate, as
recognized by using the NSAPs of the network connection, and the
SRC-REF parameter, then it is associated with the transport
connection created by the original value of the CR TPDU;
otherwise it is processed as requesting the creation of a new
transport connection.

If the received TPDU is a DT TPDU and the network connection has
a class 0 or 1 transport connection assigned to it, or an AK TPDU



47











where a class 1 transport connection is assigned, then the TPDU
is associated with the transport connection.

Otherwise, the DST-REF parameter of the TPDU is used to identify
the transport connection. The following cases are distinguished:

a) if the DST-REF is not allocated to a transport connection,
the transport entity shall respond on the same network
connection with a DR TPDU if the TPDU is a CC TPDU, with a
DC TPDU if the TPDU is a DR TPDU and shall ignore the TPDU
if neither a DR TPDU nor CC TPDU. No association with a
transport connection is made.

b) if the DST-REF is allocated to a connection, but the TPDU
is received on a network connection to which the
connection has not been assigned then there are three
cases:

1) if the transport connection is of class 4 and if the
TPDU is received on a network connection with the same
pair of NSAPs as that of the CR TPDU then the TPDU is
considered as performing assignment,

2) if the transport connection is not assigned to any
network connection (waiting for reassignment after
failure) and if the TPDU is received on a network
connection with the same pair of NSAPs as that of the
CR TPDU then the association with that transport
connection is made.

3) Otherwise, the TPDU is considered as having a DST-REF
not allocated to a transport connection (case a).

c) If the TPDU is a DC TPDU then it is associated with the
transport connection to which the DST-REF is allocated,
unless the SRC-REF is not the expected one, in which case
the DC TPDU is ignored.

d) If the TPDU is a DR TPDU then there are three cases:

1) if the SRC-REF is not as expected then a DC TPDU with
DST-REF equal to the SRC-REF of the received DR TPDU
is sent back and no association is made;



48











2) if a CR TPDU is unacknowledged then the DR TPDU is
associated with the transport connection, regardless
of the value of its SRC-REF parameter;

3) otherwise, the DR TPDU is associated with the
transport connection identified by the DST-REF
parameter.

e) if the TPDU is a CC TPDU whose DST-REF parameter
identifies an open connection (one for which a CC TPDU has
been previously received), and the SRC-REF in the CC TPDU
does not match the remote reference, then a DR TPDU is
sent back with DST-REF equal to the SRC-REF of the
received CC TPDU and no association is made.

f) if none of the above cases apply then the TPDU is
associated with the transport connection identified by the
DST-REF parameter.




6.10 Data TPDU numbering

6.10.1 Purpose

Data TPDU numbering is used in classes 1, 2 (except when the
non-use of explicit flow control option is selected), 3 and 4.
Its purpose is to enable the use of recovery, flow control and
re-sequencing functions.




6.10.2 TPDUs and parameters used

The procedure makes use of the following TPDU and parameter:

DT TPDU;

- TPDU-NR.





49











6.10.3 Procedure

A Transport entity shall allocate the sequence number zero to the
TPDU-NR of the first DT TPDU which it transmits for a transport
connection. For subsequent DT TPDUs sent on the same transport
connection, the transport entity shall allocate a sequence number
one greater than the previous one.

When a DT TPDU is retransmitted, the TPDU-NR parameter shall have
the same value as in the first transmission of that DT TPDU.

Modulo 2**7 arithmetic shall be used when normal formats have
been selected and modulo 2**31 arithmetic shall be used when
extended formats have been selected. In this International
Standard the relationships 'greater than' and 'less than' apply
to a set of contiguous TPDU numbers whose range is less than the
modulus and whose starting and finishing numbers are known. The
term 'less than' means 'occurring sooner in the window sequence'
and the term 'greater than' means 'occurring later in the window
sequence'.




6.11 Expedited data transfer

6.11.1 Purpose

Expedited data transfer procedures are selected during connection
establishment. The network normal data variant may be used in
classes 1, 2, 3 and 4. The network expedited variant is only
used in class 1.




6.11.2 Network service primitives

The procedure makes use of the following network service
primitives:

a) N-DATA;




50











b) N-EXPEDITED DATA.




6.11.3 TPDUs and parameter used

The procedure makes use of the following TPDUs and parameters:

a) ED TPDU;

- ED TPDU-NR.

b) EA TPDU;

- YR-EDTU-NR.




6.11.4 Procedures

The TS-user data parameter of each T-EXPEDITED DATA request shall
be conveyed as the data field of an Expedited Data (ED) TPDU.

Each ED TPDU received shall be acknowledged by an Expedited
Acknowledge (EA) TPDU.

No more than one ED TPDU shall remain unacknowledged at any time
for each direction of a transport connection.

An ED TPDU with a zero length data field is a protocol error.














51











NOTES

1. The network normal data variant is used, except when the
network expedited variant (available in Class 1 only), has
been agreed, in which case ED and EA TPDUs are conveyed in
the data fields of N-EXPEDITED DATA primitives (see
6.2.3).

2. No TPDUs can be transmitted using network expedited until
the CC TPDU becomes acknowledged, to prevent the network
expedited from overtaking the CC TPDU.




6.12 Reassignment after failure

6.12.1 Purpose

The reassignment after failure procedure is used in Classes 1 and
3 to commence recovery from an NS-provider signalled disconnect.




6.12.2 Network service primitives

The procedure uses the following network service primitive:

N-DISCONNECT indication




6.12.3 Procedure

When an N-DISCONNECT indication is received from the network
connection to which a transport connection is assigned, the
initiator shall apply one of the following alternatives:

a) if the TTR timer has not already run out and no DR TPDU is
retained then:




52











1) assign the transport connection to a different network
connection (see 6.1) and start its TTR timer if not
already started.

2) while waiting for the completion of assignment if:

- an N-DISCONNECT indication is received, repeat the
procedure from 6.12.3.a,

- the TTR timer expires, begin procedure 6.12.3.b.

3) when reassignment is completed, begin
resynchronization (see 6.14) and:

- if a valid TPDU is received as the result of the
resynchronization, stop the TTR timer, or

- if TTR runs out, wait for the next event, or

- if an N-DISCONNECT indication is received, then
begin either procedure 6.12.3.a or 6.12.3.b
depending on the TTR timer.

NOTE - After the TTR timer expires and while waiting for
the next event, it is recommended that the initiator
starts the TWR timer. If the TWR timer expires before the
next event the initiator should begin the procedure in
6.12.3.b.

b) if the TTR timer has run out, consider the transport
connection as released and freeze the reference (see
6.18).

c) if a DR TPDU is retained and the TTR timer has not run
out, then follow the actions in either 6.12.3.a or
6.12.3.b.

The responder shall start its TWR timer if not already started.
The arrival of the first TPDU related to the transport connection
(because of resynchronization by the initiator) completes the
reassignment after failure procedure. The TWR timer is stopped
and the responder shall continue with resynchronization (see
6.14). If reassignment does not take place within this time, the



53











transport connection is considered released and the reference is
frozen (see 6.18).




6.12.4 Timers

The reassignment after failure procedure uses two timers:

a) TTR, the time to try reassignment/resynchronization timer;

b) TWR, the time to wait for reassignment/resynchronization
timer.

The TTR timer is used by the initiator. Its value shall not
exceed two minutes minus the sum of the maximum disconnect
propagation delay and the transit delay of the network
connections (see note 1). The value for the TTR timer may be
indicated in the CR TPDU.

The TWR timer is used by the responder. If the reassignment time
parameter is present in the CR TPDU, the TWR timer value shall be
greater than the sum of the TTR timer plus the maximum disconnect
propagation delay plus the transit delay of the network
connections.

If the reassignment time parameter is not present in the CR TPDU,
a default value of 2 minutes shall be used for the TWR timer.

NOTES

1. Provided that the required quality of service is met, TTR may
be set to zero (i.e. no assignment). This may be done, for
example, if the rate of NS-provider generated disconnects is
very low.

2. Inclusion of the reassignment time parameter in the CR TPDU
allows the responder to use a TWR value of less than 2
minutes.

3. If the optional TS1 and TS2 timers are used, it is
recommended:



54











a) to stop TS1 or TS2 if running when TTR or TWR is
started;

b) to restart TS1 or TS2 if necessary when the
corresponding TPDU (CR TPDU or DR TPDU respectively is
repeated);

c) to select for TS1 and TS2 values greater than TTR.






































55











6.13 Retention until acknowledgement of TPDUs

6.13.1 Purpose

The retention until acknowledgement of TPDUs procedure is used in
classes 1, 3 and 4 to enable and minimize retransmission after
possible loss of TPDUs.

The confirmation of receipt variant is used only in Class 1 when
it has been agreed during connection establishment (see note).

The AK variant is used in classes 3 and 4 and also in Class 1
when the confirmation of receipt variant has not been agreed
during connection establishment.

NOTE - Use of confirmation of receipt variant depends on the
availability of the network layer receipt confirmation service
and the expected cost reduction.




6.13.2 Network service primitives

The procedure uses the following network service primitives:

a) N-DATA;

b) N-DATA ACKNOWLEDGE.




6.13.3 TPDUs and parameters used

The procedure uses the following TPDUs and parameters:

a) CR, CC, DR and DC TPDUs;

b) RJ and AK TPDUs;

- YR-TU-NR.




56











c) DT TPDU;

- TPDU-NR.

d) ED TPDU;

- ED-TPDU-NR.

e) EA TPDU;

- YR-EDTU-NR.




6.13.4 Procedures

Copies of the following TPDUs shall be retained upon transmission
to permit their later retransmission:

CR, CC, DR, DT and ED TPDUs

except that if a DR is sent in response to a CR TPDU there is no
need to retain a copy of the DR TPDU.

In the confirmation of receipt variant, applicable only in Class
1, transport entities receiving N-DATA indications which convey
DT TPDUs and have the confirmation request field set shall issue
an N-DATA ACKNOWLEDGE request (see notes 1 and 2).

After each TPDU is acknowledged, as shown in table 5, the copy
need not be retained. Copies may also be discarded when the
transport connection is released.













57











NOTES

1. It is a local matter for each transport entity to decide
which N-DATA requests should have the confirmation request
parameter set. This decision will normally be related to
the amount of storage available for retained copies of the
DT TPDUs.

2. Use of the confirmation request parameter may affect the
quality of network service.




































58















+-------------------------------------------------------------+
|RETAINED| | |
| TPDU | VARIANT | RETAINED UNTIL ACKNOWLEDGED BY |
|--------|--------------|-------------------------------------|
| CR | both |CC, DR or ER TPDU. |
| | | |
| DR | both |DC or DR (in case of collision) TPDU.|
| | | |
| CC | confirmation |N-DATA Acknowledge indication, RJ, |
| | of receipt |DT, EA or ED TPDU. |
| | variant | |
| | | |
| CC | AK variant |RJ, DT, AK, ED or EA TPDU. |
| | | |
| DT | confirmation |N-DATA ACKNOWLEDGE indication cor- |
| | of receipt |responding to an N-DATA request which|
| | variant |conveyed, or came after, the DT TPDU.|
| | | |
| DT | AK variant |AK or RJ TPDU for which the YR-TU-NR |
| | |is greater than TPDU-NR in the DT |
| | |TPDU. |
| | | |
| ED | both |EA TPDU for which the YR-EDTU-NR is |
| | |equal to the ED-TPDU-NR in the |
| | |ED TPDU. |
+-------------------------------------------------------------+

Table 5. Acknowledgement of TPDUs














59











6.14 Resynchronization

6.14.1 Purpose

The resynchronization procedures are used in Classes 1 and 3 to
restore the transport connection to normal after a reset or
during reassignment after failure according to 6.12.




6.14.2 Network service primitives

The procedure makes use of the following network service
primitive:

N-RESET indication.




6.14.3 TPDUs and parameters used

The procedure uses the following TPDUs and parameters:

a) CR, DR, CC and DC TPDUs

b) RJ TPDUs;

- YR-TU-NR.

c) DT TPDU;

- TPDU-NR

d) ED TPDU;

- ED TPDU-NR.

e) EA TPDU;

- YR-EDTU-NR.




60











6.14.4 Procedure

A transport entity which is notified of the occurence of an N-
RESET or which is performing 'reassignment after failure'
according to 6.12 shall carry out the active resynchronization
procedure (see 6.14.4.1) unless any of the following hold:

a) the transport entity is the responder (see note). In this
case the passive resynchronization procedure is carried
out (see 6.14.4.2).

b) the transport entity has elected not to reassign (see
6.12.3.c). In this case no resynchronization takes place.




6.14.4.1 Active resynchronization procedures

The Transport entity shall carry out one of the following
actions:

a) if the TTR timer has been previously started and has run
out (i.e. no valid TPDU has been received), the transport
connection is considered as released and the reference is
frozen (see 6.18).

b) otherwise, the TTR timer shall be started (unless it is
already running) and the first applicable of the following
actions shall be taken:

1) if a CR TPDU is unacknowledged, then the transport
entity shall retransmit it;

2) if a DR TPDU is unacknowledged, then the transport
entity shall retransmit it;

3) otherwise, the transport entity shall carry out the
data resynchronization procedures (6.14.4.3).

The TTR timer is stopped when a valid TPDU is received.





61











6.14.4.2 Passive resynchronization procedures

The transport entity shall not send any TPDUs until a TPDU has
been received. The transport entity shall start its TWR timer if
it was not already started (due to a previous N-DISCONNECT or N-
RESET indication). If the timer runs out prior to the receipt of
a valid TPDU which commence resynchronization (i.e. CR or DR or
RJ TPDU) the transport connection is considered as released and
the reference is released (see 6.18).

When a valid TPDU is received the transport entity shall stop its
TWR timer and carry out the appropriate one of the following
actions, depending on the TPDU:

a) if it is a DR TPDU, then the transport entity shall send a
DC TPDU;

b) if it is a repeated CR TPDU (see note 1) then the
transport entity shall carry out the appropriate action
from the following:

1) if a CC TPDU has already been sent, and acknowledged:
treat as a protocol error;

2) if a DR TPDU is unacknowledged (whether or not a CC
TPDU is unacknowledged): retransmit the DR TPDU, but
setting the source reference to zero;

3) if the T-CONNECT response has not yet been received
from the user: take no action;

4) otherwise; retransmit the CC TPDU followed by an
unacknowledged ED TPDU (see note 2) and any DT TPDU;

NOTES

1. A repeated CR TPDU can be identified by being on a
network connection with the appropriate network
addresses and having a correct source reference.







62











2. The transport entity should not use network expedited
until the CC TPDU is acknowledged (see 6.5). This
rule prevents the network expedited from overtaking
the CC TPDU.

c) if it is an RJ or ED TPDU then one of the following
actions shall be taken:

1) if a DR TPDU is unacknowledged, then the transport
entity shall retransmit it;

2) otherwise, the transport entity shall carry out the
data resynchronization procedures (6.14.4.3).

3) If a CC TPDU was unacknowledge, the RJ or ED TPDU
should then be considered as acknowledging the CC
TPDU. If a CC TPDU was never sent, the RJ TPDU should
then be considered as a protocol error.




6.14.4.3 Data Resynchronization Procedures

The transport entity shall carry out the following actions in the
following order:

a) (re)transmit any ED TPDU which is unacknowledged,

b) transmit an RJ TPDU with YR-TU-NR field set to the TPDU-NR
of the next expected DT TPDU;















63











c) wait for the next TPDU from the other transport entity,
unless an RJ or DR TPDU has already been received; if a DR
TPDU is received the transport entity shall send a DC,
freeze the reference, inform the TS-user of the
disconnection and take no further action (i.e. it shall
not follow the procedures in 6.14.4.3.d). If an RJ TPDU
is received, the procedure of 6.14.4.3.d shall be
followed. If an ED TPDU is received the procedures as
described in 6.11 shall be followed. If it is a
duplicated ED-TPDU the transport entity shall acknowledge
it, with an EA TPDU, discard the duplicated ED TPDU and
wait again for the next TPDU.

d) (re)transmit any DT TPDUs which are unacknowledged,
subject to any applicable flow control procedures (see
note);

NOTE - The RJ TPDU may have reduced the credit.




6.15 Multiplexing and demultiplexing

6.15.1 Purpose

The multiplexing and demultiplexing procedures are used in
Classes 2, 3 and 4 to allow several transport connections to
share a network connection at the same time.




6.15.2 TPDUs and parameters used

The procedure makes use of the following TPDUs and parameters:

CC, DR, DC, DT, AK, ED, EA, RJ and ER TPDUs

- DST-REF






64











6.15.3 Procedure

The transport entities shall be able to send and receive on the
same network connection TPDUs belonging to different transport
connections.

NOTES

1. When performing demultiplexing the transport connection to
which the TPDUs apply is determined by the procedures
defined in 6.9.

2. Multiplexing allows the concatenation of TPDUs belonging
to different transport connections to be transferred in
the same N-DATA primitive (see 6.4).




6.16 Explicit Flow Control

6.16.1 Purpose

The explicit flow control procedure is used in Classes 2, 3 and 4
to regulate the flow of DT TPDUs independently of the flow
control in the other layers.




6.16.2 TPDUs and parameters used

The procedure makes use of the following TPDUs and parameters:

a) CR, CC, AK and RJ TPDUs

- CDT.

b) DT TPDU

- TPDU-NR.





65











c) AK TPDU

- YR-TU-NR;
- subsequence number;
- flow control confirmation.

d) RJ TPDU

- YR-TU-NR.




6.16.3 Procedure

The procedures differ in different classes. They are defined in
the clauses specifying the separate classes.




6.17 Checksum

6.17.1 Purpose

The checksum procedure is used to detect corruption of TPDUs by
the NS-provider.

NOTE - Although a checksum algorithm has to be adapted to the
type of errors expected on the network connection, at present
only one algorithm is defined.




6.17.2 TPDUs and parameters used

The procedure uses the following TPDUs and parameters:

All TPDUs
- checksum





66











6.17.3 Procedure

The checksum is used only in Class 4. It is always used for the
CR TPDU, and is used for all other TPDUs except if the non-use of
the procedure was agreed during connection establishment.

The sending transport entity shall transmit TPDUs with the
checksum parameter set such that the following formulas are
satisfied:

SUM(from i=1 to i=L) OF a[i] EQUALS (module 255)

SUM(from i=1 to i=L) OF i*a[i] EQUALS (module 255)

where

i = number (i.e. position) of an octet within the TPDU
(see 13.2);
a[i] = value of octet in position 1;
L = length of TPDU in octets.

A transport entity which receives a TPDU for a transport
connection for which the use of checksum has been agreed and
which does not satisfy the above formulas shall discard the TPDU
(see also note 2).

NOTES

1. An efficient algorithm for determining the checksum
parameters is given in annex B.

2. If the checksum is incorrect, it is not possible to know
with certainty to which transport connection the TPDU is
related; further action may be taken for all the transport
connections assigned to the network connection (see 6.9).

3. The checksum proposed is easy to calculate and so will not
impose a heavy burden on implementations. However, it
will not detect insertion or loss of leading or trailing
zeros and will not detect some octets misordering.






67











6.18 Frozen references

6.18.1 Purpose

This procedure is used in order to prevent re-use of a reference
while TPDUs associated with the old use of the reference may
still exist.




6.18.2 Procedure

When a transport entity determines that a particular connection
is released it shall place the reference which it has allocated
to the connection in a frozen state according to the procedures
of the class. While frozen, the reference shall not be re-used.

NOTE - The frozen reference procedure is necessary because
retransmission or misordering can cause TPDUs bearing a reference
to arrive at an entity after it has released the connection for
which it allocated the reference. Retransmission, for example,
can arise when the class includes either resynchronization (see
6.14) or retransmission on time out (see 6.19).




6.18.2.1 Procedure for classes 0 and 2

The frozen reference procedure is never used for these classes.

NOTE - However for consistency with the other classes freezing
the references may be done as a local decision.












68











6.18.2.2 Procedure for classes 1 and 3

The frozen reference procedure is used except in the following
cases (see note 1):

a) when the transport entity receives a DC TPDU in response
to a DR TPDU which it has sent (see note 2);

b) when the transport entity sends a DR or ER TPDU in
response to a CR TPDU which it has received (see note 3);

c) when the transport entity has considered the connection to
be released after the expiration of the TWR timer (see
note 4);

d) when the transport entity receives a DR or ER TPDU in
response to a CR TPDU which it has sent.

The period of time for which the reference remains frozen shall
be greater than the TWR time.

NOTES

1. However, even in these cases, for consistency freezing the
reference may be done as a local decision.

2. When the DC TPDU is received it is certain that the other
transport entity considers the connection released.

3. When the DR or ER TPDU is sent the peer transport entity
has not been informed of any reference assignment and thus
cannot possibly make use of a reference (this includes the
case where a CC TPDU was sent, but was lost).

4. In 6.18.2.c the transport entity has already effectively
frozen the reference for an adequate period.










69











6.18.2.3 Procedure for classes 4

The frozen reference procedure is always used in class 4. The
period for which the reference remains frozen should be greater
than L (see 12.2.1.1.6).




6.19 Retransmission on time-out

6.19.1 Purpose

The procedure is used in Class 4 to cope with unsignalled loss of
TPDUs by the NS-provider.




6.19.2 TPDUs used

The procedure makes use of the following TPDUs:

CR, CC, DR, DT, ED, AK TPDUs.




6.19.3 Procedure

The procedure is specified in the procedures for Class 4 (see
12.2.1.2.j).




6.20 Resequencing









70











6.20.1 Purpose

The resequencing procedure is used in Class 4 to cope with
misordering of TPDUs by the network service provider.




6.20.2 TPDUs and parameters used

The procedure uses the following TPDUs and parameters:

a) DT TPDU;
- TPDU-NR.

b) ED TPDU
- ED TPDU-NR




6.20.3 Procedure

The procedure is specified in the procedures for Class 4 (see
12.2.3.5).




6.21 Inactivity control

6.21.1 Purpose

The inactivity control procedure is used in Class 4 to cope with
unsignalled termination of a network connection.











71











6.21.2 Procedure

The procedure is specified in the procedures for Class 4 (see
12.2.3.3).




6.22 Treatment of protocol errors

6.22.1 Purpose

The procedure for treatment of protocol errors is used in all
classes to deal with invalid TPDUs.




6.22.2 TPDUs and parameters used

The procedure uses the following TPDUs and parameters:

a) ER TPDU;
- reject cause;
- TPDU in error.

b) DR TPDU;
- reason code.




6.22.3 Procedure

A transport entity that receives a TPDU that can be associated to
a transport connection and is invalid or constitutes a protocol
error (see 3.2.16 and 3.2.17) shall take one of the following
actions so as not to jeopardize any other transport connections
not assigned to that network connection:

a) ignoring the TPDU;

b) transmitting an ER TPDU;



72











c) resetting or closing the network connection; or

d) invoking the release procedures appropriate to the class.

If an ER TPDU is sent in Class 0 it shall contain the octets of
the invalid TPDU up to and including the octet where the error
was detected (see notes 3, 4 and 5).

If the TPDU cannot be associated to a particular transport
connection then see 6.9.

NOTES

1. In general, no further action is specified for the
receiver of the ER TPDU but it is recommended that it
initiates the release procedure appropriate to the class.
If the ER TPDU has been received as an answer to a CR TPDU
then the connection is regarded as released (see 6.6).

2. Care should be taken by a transport entity receiving
several invalid TPDUs or ER TPDUs to avoid looping if the
error is generated repeatedly.

3. If the invalid received TPDU is greater than the selected
maximum TPDU size it is possible that it cannot be
included in the invalid TPDU parameter of the ER TPDU.

4. It is recommended that the sender of the ER TPDU starts an
optional timer TS2 to ensure the release of the
connection. If the timer expires, the transport entity
shall initiate the release procedures appropriate to the
class. The timer should be stopped when a DR TPDU or an
N-DISCONNECT indication is received.

5. In classes other than 0, it is recommended that the
invalid TPDU be also included in the ER TPDU.










73











6.23 Splitting and recombining

6.23.1 Purpose

This procedure is used only in class 4 to allow a transport
connection to make use of multiple network connections to provide
additional resilience against network failure, to increase
throughput, or for other reasons.




6.23.2 Procedure

When this procedure is being used, a transport connection may be
assigned (see 6.1) to multiple network connections (see note 1).
TPDUs for the connection may be sent over any such network
connection.

If the use of Class 4 is not accepted by the remote transport
entity following the negotiation rules, then no network
connection except that over which the CR TPDU was sent may have
this transport connection assigned to it.

NOTES

1. The resequencing function of Class 4 (see 6.20) is used to
ensure that TPDUs are processed in the correct sequence.

2. Either transport entity may assign the connection to
further network connections of which it is the owner at
any time during the life of the transport connection.














74











3. In order to enable the detection of unsignalled network
connection failures, a transport entity performing
splitting should ensure that TPDUs are sent at intervals
on each supporting network connection, for example, by
sending successive TPDUs on successive network
connections, where the set of network connections is used
cyclically. By monitoring each network connection, a
transport entity may detect unsignalled network connection
failures, following the inactivity procedures defined in
12.2.3.3. Thus, for each network connection no period I
(see 12.2.3.1) may elapse without the receipt of some TPDU
for some transport connection.


































75











7 Protocol Classes

Table 6 gives an overview of which elements of procedure are
included in each class. In certain cases the elements of
procedure within different classes are not identical and, for
this reason, table 6 cannot be considered as part of the
definitive specification of the protocol.



KEY TO TABLE 6

+---|---------------------------------------------------------+
| * |Procedure always included in class |
|---|---------------------------------------------------------|
| |Not applicable |
|---|---------------------------------------------------------|
| m |Negotiable procedure whose implementation in equipment is|
| |mandatory |
|---|---------------------------------------------------------|
| o |Negotiable procedure whose implementation in equipment is|
| |optional |
|---|---------------------------------------------------------|
| ao|Negotiable procedure whose implementation in equipment is|
| |optional and where use depends on availability within the|
| |network service |
|---|---------------------------------------------------------|
|(1)|Not applicable in class 2 when non-use of explicit flow |
| |control is selected |
|---|---------------------------------------------------------|
|(2)|When non use of explicit flow control has been selected, |
| |multiplexing may lead to degradation of quality of |
| |service |
|---|---------------------------------------------------------|
|(3)|This function is provided in class 4 using procedures |
| |other than those in the cross reference. |
+-------------------------------------------------------------+









76















+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| |Cross | | | | | | |
| Protocol Mechanism |refe- | Variant | 0| 1| 2| 3| 4|
| |rence | | | | | | |
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Assignment to network Conn. | 6.1 | | *| *| *| *| *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| TPDU Transfer | 6.2 | | *| *| *| *| *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Segmenting and Reassembling | 6.3 | | *| *| *| *| *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Concatenation and Separation| 6.4 | | | *| *| *| *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Connection Establishment | 6.5 | | *| *| *| *| *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Connection Refusal | 6.6 | | *| *| *| *| *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Normal Release | 6.7 | implicit | *| | | | |
| | | explicit | | *| *| *| *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Error Release | 6.8 | | *| | *| | |
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Association of TPDUs with | | | | | | | |
| Transport Connection | 6.9 | | *| *| *| *| *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| DT TPDU Numbering | 6.10 | normal | | *|m(1)m| m|
| | | extended | | |o(1)o| o|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Expedited Data Transfer | 6.11 | network | | | *| | |
| | | normal | | m|(1) *| *|
| | | network | | | | | |
| | | expedited | |ao| | | |
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Reassignment after failure | 6.12 | | | *| | *|(3)
+----------------------------------------------------------------+

Table 6. (First of 2 pages) Allocation of procedures within classes





77











+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| Retention until Acknowledge-| |Conf.Receipt| |ao| | | |
| ment of TPDUs | 6.13 |AK | | m| | | *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Resynchronisation | 6.14 | | | *| | *|(3)
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Multiplexing and | | | | |(2) | |
| Demultiplexing | 6.15 | | | | *| *| *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Explicit Flow Control With | 6.16 | | | | m| *| *|
| Without | | | *| *| o| | |
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Checksum (use of) | 6.17 | | | | | | m|
| (non-use of) | | | *| *| *| *| o|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Frozen References | 6.18 | | | *| | *| *|
|------------------------------------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Retransmission on Timeout | 6.19 | | | | | | *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Resequencing | 6.20 | | | | | | *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Inactivity Control | 6.21 | | | | | | *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Treatment of Protocol Errors| 6.22 | | *| *| *| *| *|
|-----------------------------|------|------------|--|--|--|--|--|
| Splitting and Recombining | 6.23 | | | | | | *|
+----------------------------------------------------------------+

Table 6. (2nd of 2 pages) Allocation of procedures within classes

















78











8 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASS 0. SIMPLE CLASS

8.1 Functions of class 0

Class 0 is designed to have minimum functionality. It provides
only the functions needed for connection establishment with
negotiation, data transfer with segmenting and protocol error
reporting.

Class 0 provides transport connections with flow control based on
the network service provided flow control, and disconnection
based on the network service disconnection.




8.2 Procedures for class 0

8.2.1 Procedures applicable at all times

The transport entities shall use the following procedures:

a) TPDU transfer (see 6.2);

b) association of TPDUs with transport connections (see 6.9);

c) treatment of protocol errors (see 6.22);

d) error release (see 6.8).




8.2.2 Connection establishment

The transport entities shall use the following procedures:

a) assignment to network connection (see 6.1); then

b) connection establishment (see 6.5) and, if appropriate,
connection refusal (see 6.6);

subject to the following constraints:



79











c) the CR and CC TPDUs shall contain no parameter field other
than those for TSAP-ID and maximum TPDU size;

d) the CR and CC TPDUs shall not contain a data field.




8.2.3 Data transfer

The transport entities shall use the segmenting and reassembling
procedure (see 6.3).




8.2.4 Release

The transport entities shall use the implicit variant of the
normal release procedure (see 6.7).

NOTE - the lifetime of the transport connection is directly
correlated with the lifetime of the network connection.























80











9 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASS 1: BASIC ERROR RECOVERY CLASS

9.1 Functions of Class 1

Class 1 provides transport connections with flow control based on
the network service provided flow control, error recovery,
expedited data transfer, disconnection, and also the ability to
support consecutive transport connections on a network
connection.

This class provides the functionality of Class 0 plus the ability
to recover after a failure signalled by the Network Service,
without involving the TS-user.




9.2 Procedures for Class 1

9.2.1 Procedures applicable at all times

The transport entities shall use the following procedures:

a) TPDU transfer (see 6.2);

b) association of TPDU with transport connections (see 6.9);

c) treatment of protocol errors (see 6.22);

d) reassignment after failure (see 6.12);

e) resynchronization (see 6.14), or reassignment after
failure (see 6.12) together with resynchronization (see
6.14);

f) concatenation and separation (see 6.4);

g) retention until acknowledgement of TPDU (see 6.13); the
variant used, AK or confirmation of receipt, shall be as
selected during connection establishment (see notes);

h) frozen references (see 6.18).




81











NOTES

1. The negotiation of the variant of retention until
acknowledgement of TPDUs procedure to be used over the
transport connection has been designed such that if the
initiator proposes the use of the AK variant (i.e. the
mandatory implementation option), the responder has to
accept use of this option and if the initiator proposes
use of the confirmation of receipt variant the responder
is entitled to select use of the AK variant.

2. The AK variant makes use of AK TPDUs to release copies of
retained DT TPDUs. The CDT parameter of AK TPDUs in class
1 is not significant, and is set to 1111.

3. The confirmation of receipt variant is restricted to this
class and its use depends on the availability of the
network layer receipt confirmation service, and the
expected cost reduction.




9.2.2 Connection establishment

The transport entities shall use the following procedures:

a) assignment to network connection (see 6.1); then

b) connection establishment (see 6.5) and, if appropriate,
connection refusal (see 6.6).




9.2.3 Data Transfer

9.2.3.1 General

The sending transport entity shall use the following procedures;

a) segmenting (see 6.3); then




82











b) the normal format variant of DT TPDU numbering (see 6.10).

The receiving transport entity shall use the following
procedures;

c) the normal variant of DT TPDU numbering (see 6.10,; then

d) reassembling (see 6.3).

NOTES

1. The use of RJ TPDU during resynchronization (see 6.14) can
lead to retransmission. Thus the receipt of a duplicate
DT TPDU is possible; such a DT TPDU is discarded.

2. It is possible to decide on a local basis to issue an N-
RESET request in order to force the remote entity to carry
out the resynchronization (see 6.14).




9.2.3.2 Expedited Data

The transport entities shall use either the network normal data
or the network expedited variants of the expedited data transfer
procedure (see 6.11) if their use has been selected during
connection establishment (see note 1).

The sending transport entity shall not allocate the same ED-
TPDU-NR to successive ED TPDUs (see notes 2 and 3).

When acknowledging an ED TPDU by sending and EA TPDU the
transport entity shall put into the YR-EDTU-NR parameter of the
EA TPDU the value received in the ED-TPDU-NR parameter of the ED
TPDU.

NOTES

1. The negotiation of the variant of expedited data transfer
procedure to be used over the transport connection has
been designed such that if the initiator proposes the use
of the network normal data variant (i.e. the mandatory



83











implementation option), the responder has to accept use of
this option and if the initiator proposes use of the
network expedited variant, the responder is entitled to
select use of the network normal data variant.

2. This numbering enables the receiving transport entity to
discard repeated ED TPDUs when resynchronization (see
6.14) has taken place.

3. No other significance is attached to the ED TPDU-NR
parameter. It is recommended, but not essential, that the
values used be consecutive modulo 128.




9.2.4 Release

The transport entities shall use the explicit variant of the
release procedure (see 6.7).


























84











10 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASS 2 - MULTIPLEXING CLASS

10.1 Functions of class 2

Class 2 provides transport connections with or without individual
flow control; no error detection or error recovery is provided.

If the network connection resets or disconnects, the transport
connection is terminated without the transport release procedure
and the TS-user is informed.

When explicit flow control is used, a credit mechanism is defined
allowing the receiver to inform the sender of the exact amount of
data he is willing to receive and expedited data transfer is
available.




10.2 Procedures for class 2

10.2.1 Procedures applicable at all times

The transport entities shall use the following procedures

a) association of TPDUs with transport connection (see 6.9);

b) TPDU transfer (see 6.2);

c) treatment of protocol errors (see 6.22);

d) concatenation and separation (see 6.4);

e) error release (see 6.8).

Additionally the transport entities may use the following
procedure:

f) multiplexing and demultiplexing (see 6.15).







85











10.2.2 Connection establishment

The transport entities shall use the following procedures:

a) assignment to network connection (see 6.1); then

b) connection establishment (see 6.5) and, if applicable
connection refusal (see 6.6).




10.2.3 Data transfer when non use of explicit flow control

has been selected

If this option has been selected as a result of the connection
establishment, the transport entities shall use the segmenting
procedure (see 6.3).

The TPDU-NR field of DT TPDUs is not significant and may take any
value.

NOTE- -Expedited data transfer is not applicable (see 6.5).




10.2.4 Data transfer when use of explicit flow control

has been selected



10.2.4.1 General

The sending transport entity shall use the following procedures:

a) segmenting (see 6.3); then

b) DT TPDU numbering (see 6.10);





86











The receiving transport entity shall use the following
procedures:

c) DT TPDU numbering (see 6.10); if a DT TPDU is received
which is out of sequence it shall be treated as a protocol
error; then

d) reassembling (see 6.3).

The variant of the DT TPDU numbering which is used by both
transport entities shall be that which was agreed at
connection establishment.




10.2.4.2 Flow control

The transport entities shall send an initial credit (which may be
zero) in the CDT field of the CR or CC TPDU. This credit
represents the initial value of the upper window edge allocated
to the peer entity.

The transport entity that receives the CR or the CC TPDU shall
consider its lower window edge as zero, and its upper window edge
as the value of the CDT field in the received TPDU.

In order to authorize the transmission of DT TPDUs, by its peer,
a transport entity may transmit an AK TPDU at any time, subject
to the following constraints:

a) the YR-TU-NR parameter shall be at most one greater than
the TPDU-NR field of the last received DT TPDU or shall be
zero if no DT TPDU has been received;

b) if an AK TPDU has previously been sent the value of the
YR-TU-NR parameter shall not be lower than that in the
previously sent AK TPDU.

c) the sum of the YR-TU-NR and CDT fields shall not be less
than the upper window edge allocated to the remote entity
(see note 1).




87











A transport entity which receives an AK TPDU shall consider the
YR-TU-NR field as its new lower window edge, and the sum of YR-
TU-NR and CDT as its new upper window edge. If either of these
have been reduced or if the lower window edge has become more
than one greater than the TPDU-NR of the last transmitted DT
TPDU, this shall be treated as a protocol error (see 6.22).

A transport entity shall not send a DT TPDU with a TPDU-NR
outside of the transmit window (see notes 2 and 3).

NOTES

1. This means that credit reduction is not applicable.

2. This means that a transport entity is required to stop
sending if the TPDU-NR field of the next DT TPDU which
would be sent would be the upper window edge. Sending of
DT TPDU may be resumed if an AK TPDU is received which
increases the upper window edge.

3. The rate at which a transport entity progresses the upper
window edge allocated to its peer entity constrains the
throughput attainable on the transport connection.




10.2.4.3 Expedited data

The transport entities shall follow the network normal variant of
the expedited data transfer procedure in 6.11 if its use has been
agreed during connection establishment. ED and EA TPDUs
respectively are not subject to the flow control procedures in
10.2.4.2. The ED-TPDU-NR and YR-ETDU-NR fields of ED and EA
TPDUs respectively are not significant and may take any value.











88











10.2.5 Release

The transport entities shall use the explicit variant of the
release procedure in 6.7.










































89











11 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASS 3: ERROR RECOVERY AND MULTIPLEXING
CLASS

11.1 Functions of Class 3

Class 3 provides the functionality of Class 2 (with use of
explicit flow control) plus the ability to recover after a
failure signalled by the Network Layer without involving the user
of the transport service.

The mechanisms used to achieve this functionality also allow the
implementation of more flexible flow control.




11.2 Procedures for Class 3

11.2.1 Procedures applicable at all times

The transport entities shall use the following procedures:

a) association of TPDUs with transport connections (see 6.9);

b) TPDU transfer (see 6.2) and retention until
acknowledgement of TPDUs (AK variant only) (see 6.13);

c) treatment of protocol errors (see 6.22);

d) concatenation and separation (see 6.4);

e) reassignment after failure (see 6.12), together with
resynchronization (see 6.14);

f) frozen references (see 6.18).

Additionally, the transport entities may use the following
procedure:

g) multiplexing and demultiplexing (see 6.15);






90











11.2.2 Connection Establishment

The transport entities shall use the following procedures;

a) assignment to network connections (see 6.1); then

b) connection establishment (see 6.5) and, if appropriate,
together with connection refusal (see 6.6).




11.2.3 Data Transfer

11.2.3.1 General

The sending transport entity shall use the following procedures:

a) segmenting (see 6.3), then

b) DT TPDU numbering (see 6.10); after receipt of an RJ TPDU
(see 11.2.3.2) the next DT TPDU to be sent may have a
value which is not the previous value of TPDU-NR plus one.

The receiving transport entity shall use the following
procedures:

c) DT TPDU numbering (see 6.10); the TPDU-NR field of each
received DT TPDU shall be treated as a protocol error if
it exceeds the greatest such value received in a previous
DT TPDU by more than one (see note); then

d) reassembling (see 6.3); duplicated TPDUs shall be
eliminated before reassembling is performed.

NOTE - The use of RJ TPDUs (see 11.2.3.2) can lead to
retransmission and reduction of credit. Thus the receipt of a DT
TPDU which is a duplicate, or which is greater than or equal to
the upper window edge allocated to the peer entity, is possible
and is therefore not treated as a protocol error.






91











11.2.3.2 Use of RJ TPDU

A transport entity may send an RJ TPDU at any time in order to
invite retransmission or to reduce the upper window edge
allocated to the peer entity (see note 1).

When an RJ TPDU is sent, the following constraints shall be
respected:

a) the YR-TU-NR parameter shall be at most one greater than
the greatest such value received in a previous DT TPDU, or
shall be zero if no DT TPDU has yet been received (see
note 2);

b) if an AK or RJ TPDU has previously been sent the YR-TU-NR
parameter shall not be lower than that in the previously
sent AK or RJ TPDU or lower than zero if no AK or RJ TPDU.

When a transport entity receives an RJ TPDU (see note 3):

c) the next DT TPDU to be transmitted, or retransmitted,
shall be that for which the value of the TPDU-NR parameter
is equal to the value of the YR-TU-NR parameter of the RJ
TPDU;

d) the sum of the values of the YR-TU-NR and CDT parameters
of the RJ TPDU becomes the new upper window edge (see note
4).

NOTES

1. An RJ TPDU can also be sent as part of the
resynchronization (see 6.14) and reassignment after
failure (see 6.12) procedures.

2. It is recommended that the YR-TU-NR parameter be equal to
the TPDU-NR parameter of the next expected DT TPDU.

3. These rules are a subset of those specified for when an RJ
TPDU is received during resynchronization (see 6.14) and
reassignment after failure (see 6.12).





92











4. This means that RJ TPDU can be used to reduce the upper
window edge allocated to the peer entity (credit
reduction).




11.2.3.3 Flow Control

The procedures shall be as defined in 10.2.4.2, except that:

a) a credit reduction may lead to the reception of a DT TPDU
with a TPDU-NR parameter whose value is not, but would
have been less than the upper window edge allocated to the
remote entity prior to the credit reduction. This shall
not be treated as a protocol error;

b) receipt of an AK TPDU which sets the lower window edge
more than one greater than the TPDU-NR of the last
transmitted DT TPDU shall not be treated as a protocol
error, provided that all acknowledged DT TPDUs have been
previously transmitted (see notes 1 and 2).
NOTES

1. This can only occur during retransmission following
receipt of an RJ TPDU.

2. The transport entity may either continue retransmission as
before or retransmit only those DT TPDUs, not acknowledged
by the AK TPDU. In either case, copies of the
acknowledged DT TPDUs, need not be retained further.




11.2.3.4 Expedited data

The transport entities shall follow the network normal data
variant of expedited data transfer procedure in 6.11 if its use
has been agreed during connection establishment.

The sending transport entity shall not allocate the same ED-
TPDU-NR to successive ED TPDUs.



93











The receiving transport entity shall transmit an EA TPDU with the
same value in its YR-EDTU-NR parameter. If, and only if, this
number is different from that of the previously received ED TPDU
shall it generate a T-EXPEDITED DATA indication to convey the
data to the TS-user (see note 2).

NOTES

1. No other significance is attached to the ED-TPDU-NR
parameter. It is recommended, but not essential, that the
values be consecutive modulo 2**n, where n is the number
of bits of the parameter.

2. This procedure ensures that the TS-user does not receive
data corresponding to the same ED TPDU more than once.




11.2.4 Release

The transport entities shall use the explicit variant of the
release procedure in 6.7.























94











12 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASS 4: ERROR DETECTION AND RECOVERY CLASS

12.1 Functions of Class 4

Class 4 provides the functionality of Class 3, plus the ability
to detect and recover from lost, duplicated, or out of sequence
TPDUs without involving the TS-user.

This detection of errors is made by extended use of the DT TPDU
numbering of Class 2 and Class 3, by time-out mechanisms, and by
additional procedures.

This class additionally detects and recovers from damaged TPDUs
by using a checksum mechanism. The use of the checksum mechanism
must be available but its use or its non-use is subject to
negotiation.

Further on this class provides additional resilience against
network failure and increased throughput capability by allowing a
transport connection to make use of multiple network connections.




12.2 Procedures for Class 4

12.2.1 Procedures available at all times

12.2.1.1 Timers used at all times

This subclause defines timers that apply at all times in class 4.
These timers are listed in table 7.

This International Standard does not define specific values for
the timers, and the derivations described in this subclause are
not mandatory. The values should be chosen so that the required
quality of service can be provided, given the known
characteristics of the network.

Timers that apply only to specific procedures are defined under
the appropriate procedure.





95















+---------------------------|------------------------------------+
|Symbol| Name | Definition |
|------|--------------------|------------------------------------|
| MLR |NSDU lifetime | A bound for the maximum time which |
| |local-to-remote | may elapse between the transmis- |
| | | sion of an NSDU by a local trans- |
| | | port entity and the receipt of any |
| | | copy of it by a remote peer entity.|
| | | |
| MRL |NSDU lifetime | A bound for the maximum time which |
| |remote-to-local | may elapse between the transmission|
| | | of an SNDU from a remote transport |
| | | entity to a remote peer entity. |
| | | |
| ELR |Expected maximum | A bound for the maximum delay suf- |
| |transit delay | fered by all but a small proportion|
| |local-to-remote | of NSDUs transferred from the local|
| | | transport entity to a remote peer |
| | | entity. |
| | | |
| ERL |Expected maximum | A bound for the maximum delay suf- |
| |transit delay | fered by all but a small proportion|
| |remote-to-local | of NSDUs transferred from a remote |
| | | transport entity to the local peer |
| | | entity. |
| | | |
| AL |Local acknowledge | A bound for the maximum time which |
| |time | can elapse between the receipt of |
| | | a TPDU by the local transport en- |
| | | tity from the network layer and |
| | | the transmission of the corres- |
| | | ponding acknowledgement. |
| | | |
| AR |Remote acknow- | As AL, but for the remote entity. |
| |ledgement time | |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+

Table 7. (First of 2 pages) Time Parameters related to class 4




96











+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| T1 |Local retrans- | A bound for the maximum time that |
| |mission time | the local transport entity will |
| | | wait for acknowledgement before re-|
| | | transmitting a TPDU. |
| | | |
| R |Persistence time | A bound for the maximum time the |
| | | the local transport entity will |
| | | continue to transmit a TPDU that |
| | | requires acknowledgement. |
| | | |
| N |Maximum number of | A bound for the maximum number of |
| |transmissions | times which the local transport |
| | | entity will continue to transmit a |
| | | TPDU that requires acknowledgement.|
| | | |
| L |Bound on references | A bound for the maximum time |
| |and sequence | between the transmission of a TPDU |
| |numbers | and the receipt of any acknow- |
| | | ledgement relating to it. |
| | | |
| I |Inactivity time | A bound for the time after which |
| | | a transport entity will, if it |
| | | does not receive a TPDU, initiate |
| | | the release procedure to terminate |
| | | the transport connection. |
| | | |
| | | NOTE - This parameter is required |
| | | for protection against unsignalled |
| | | breaks in the network connection. |
| | | |
| W |Window time | A bound for the maximum time a |
| | | transport entity will wait before |
| | | retransmitting up to date window |
| | | information. |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+

Table 7. (Second of 2 pages) Time Parameters related to class 4








97











12.2.1.1.1 NSDU lifetime (MLR, MRL)

The network layer is assumed to provide, as an aspect of its
grade of service, for a bound on the maximum lifetime of NSDUs in
the network. This value may be different in each direction of
transfer through a network between two transport entities. The
values, for both directions of transfer, are assumed to be Known
by the transport entities. The maximum NSDU lifetime local-to-
remote (MLR) is the maximum time which may elapse between the
transmission of an NSDU from the local transport entity to the
network and receipt of any copy of the NSDU from the network at
the remote transport entity. The maximum NSDU lifetime remote-
to-local (MRL) is the maximum time which may elapse between the
transmission of an NSDU from the remote transport entity to the
network and receipt of any copy of the NSDU from the network at
the local transport entity.




12.2.1.1.2 Expected maximum transit delay (ELR, ERL)

The network layer is assumed to provide, as an aspect of its
grade of service, an expected maximum transit delay for NSDUs in
the network. This value may be different in each direction of
transfer through a network between two transport entities. The
values, for both directions of transfer, are assumed to be Known
by the transport entities. The expected maximum transit delay
local-to-remote (ELR) is the maximum delay suffered by all but a
small proportion of NSDUs transferred through the network from
the local transport entity to the remote transport entity. The
expected maximum transit delay remote-to-local (ERL) is the
maximum delay suffered by all but a small proportion of NSDUs
transfer through the network from the remove transport entity to
the local transport entity.











98











12.2.1.1.3 Acknowledge Time (AR, AL)

Any transport entity is assumed to provide a bound for the
maximum time which can elapse between its receipt of a TPDU from
the Network Layer and its transmission of the corresponding
response. This value is referred to as AL. The corresponding
time given by the remote transport entity is referred to as AR.




12.2.1.1.4 Local retransmission time (T1)

The local transport entity is assumed to maintain a bound on the
time it will wait for an acknowledgement before retransmitting
the TPDU. Its value is given by:

T1 = ELR + ERL + AR + X

where:

ELR = Expected maximum transit delay local-to-remote,
ERL = Expected maximum transit delay remote-to-local,
AR = Remote acknowledge time, and
X = local processing time for a TPDU.




12.2.1.1.5 Persistence Time (R)

The local transport entity is assumed to provide a bound for the
maximum time for which it may continue to retransmit a TPDU
requiring positive acknowledgement. This value is referred to as
R.

The value is clearly related to the time elapsed between
retransmission, T1, and the maximum number of transmissions, N.
It is not less than T1 * N + X, where X is a small quantity to
allow for additional internal delays, the granularity of the
mechanism used to implement T1 and so on. Because R is a bound,
the exact value of X is unimportant as long as it is bounded and
the value of a bound is known.



99











12.2.1.1.6 Bound on References and Sequence Numbers (L)

A bound for the maximum time between the decision to transmit a
TPDU and the receipt of any response relating to it (L) is given
by:

L = MLR + MRL + R + AR

where:

MLR = NSDU lifetime local-to-remote,
MRL = NSDU lifetime remote-to-local,
R = Persistence time, and
AR = Remote acknowledgement time.

It is necessary to wait for a period L before reusing any
reference of sequence number, to avoid confusion in case a TPDU
referring to it may be duplicated or delayed.

NOTES

1. In practice, the value of L may be unacceptably large. It
may also be only a statistical figure at a certain
confidence level. A smaller value may therefore be used
where this still allows the required quality of service to
be provided.

2. The relationships between times discussed above are
illustrated in figures 3 and 4.

[Figures 3 and 4 are omitted from this copy.]




12.2.1.2 General Procedures

The transport entity shall use the following procedures:

a) TPDU transfer (see 6.2);

b) association of TPDUs with transport connections (see 6.9);




100











c) treatment of protocol errors (see 6.22);

d) checksum (see 6.17);

e) splitting and recombining (see 6.23);

f) multiplexing and demultiplexing (see 6.15);

g) retention until acknowledgement of TPDUs (see 6.13);

h) frozen references (see 6.18).

j) retransmission procedures; when a transport entity has
some outstanding TPDUs that require acknowledgement, it
will check that no T1 interval elapses without the arrival
of a TPDU that acknowledges at least one of the
outstanding TPDUs.

If the timer expires, except if the TPDU to be
retransmitted is a DT TPDU and it is outside the transmit
window due credit reduction, the first TPDU is
retransmitted and the timer is restarted. After N
transmissions (i.e. N-1 retransmissions) it is assumed
that useful two-way communication is no longer possible
and the release procedure is used, and the TS-user is
informed.

NOTES

1) This procedure may be implemented by different means. For
example:

a) one interval is associated with each TPDU. If the
timer expires the associated TPDU will be transmitted
and the timer T1 will be restarted for all subsequent
TPDUs; or

b) one interval is associated with each transport
connection:

1) if the transport entity transmits a TPDU requiring
acknowledgement, it starts timer T1;




101











2) if the transport entity receives a TPDU that
acknowledges one of the TPDUs to be acknowledged,
it restarts timer T1 unless the received TPDU is
an AK which explicitly closes the transmit window.

3) if the transport entity receives a TPDU that
acknowledges the last TPDU to be acknowledged, it
stops timer T1.

For a decision whether the retransmission timer T1 is
maintained on a per TPDU or on a per transport connection
basis, throughput considerations have to be taken into
account.

2. For DT TPDUs it is a local choice to retransmit either
only the first DT TPDU or all TPDUs waiting for an
acknowledgement up to the upper window edge.

3. It is recommended that after N transmissions of a DT TPDU,
the transport entity waits T1 + W + MRL to provide a
higher possibility of receiving an acknowledgement before
entering the release phase. For other TPDU types which
may be retransmitted, it is recommended that after N
transmissions the transport entity waits T1 + MRL to
provide a higher possibility of receiving the expected
reply.




12.2.2 Procedures for Connection Establishment

12.2.2.1 Timers used in Connection Establishment

There are no timers specific to connection establishment.











102











12.2.2.2 General Procedures

The transport entities shall use the following procedures:

a) assignment to network connection (see 6.1);

b) connection establishment (see 6.5) and if appropriate
connection refusal (see 6.6) together with the additional
procedures:

1) a connection is not considered established until the
successful completion of a 3-way TPDU exchange. The
sender of a CR TPDU shall respond to the corresponding
CC TPDU by immediately sending a DT, ED, DR or AK
TPDU;

2) as a result of duplication or retransmission, a CR
TPDU may be received specifying a source reference
which is already in use with the sending transport
entity. If the receiving transport entity is in the
data transfer phase, having completed the 3-way TPDU
exchange procedure, or is waiting for the T-CONNECT
response from the TS-user, the receiving transport
entity shall ignore such a TPDU. Otherwise a CC TPDU
shall be transmitted;

3) as a result of duplication or retransmission, a CC
TPDU may be received specifying a paired reference
which is already in use. The receiving transport
entity shall only acknowledge the duplicate CC TPDU
according to the procedure in 12.2.2.2.b.1.

4) a CC TPDU may be received specifying a reference which
is in the frozen state. The response to such a TPDU
shall be a DR TPDU;

5) the retransmission procedures (see 12.2.1.2) are used
for both the CR TPDU and CC TPDU.








103











12.2.3 Procedures for Data Transfer

12.2.3.1 Timers used in Data Transfer

The data transfer procedures use two additional timers:

a) Inactivity Time (I)

To protect against unsignalled breaks in the network
connection or failure of the peer transport entity (half-open
connections), each transport entity maintains an inactivity
interval. The interval must be greater than E.

NOTE - A suitable value for I is given by
2 * (N * maximum of (T1, W))
unless local needs indicate another more appropriate value.

b) Window Time (W)

A transport entity maintains a timer interval to ensure that
there is a bound on the maximum interval between window
updates.




12.2.3.2 General Procedures for data transfer

The transport entities shall use the following procedures:

a) inactivity control (see 6.21);

b) expedited data (see 6.11);

c) explicit flow control (see 6.16).

The sending transport entity shall use the following procedures
in the following order:

d) segmenting (see 6.3);

e) DT TPDU numbering (see 6.10).




104











The receiving transport entity shall use the following procedures
in the following order:

f) DT TPDU numbering (see 6.10);

g) resequencing (see 6.20);

h) reassembling (see 6.3).




12.2.3.3 Inactivity Control

If the interval of the inactivity timer I expires without receipt
of some TPDU, the transport entity shall initiate the release
procedures. To prevent expiration of the remote transport
entity's inactivity timer when no data is being sent, the local
transport entity must send AK TPDUs at suitable intervals in the
absence of data, having regard to the probability of TPDU loss.
The window synchronization procedures (see 12.2.3.8) ensure that
this requirement is met.

NOTE - It is likely that the release procedure initiated due to
the expiration of the inactivity timer will fail, as such
expiration indicates probable failure of the supporting network
connection or of the remote transport entity.




12.2.3.4 Expedited Data

The transport entities shall follow the network normal data
variant of the expedited data transfer procedures (see 6.11), if
the use of transport expedited service option has been agreed
during connection establishment.

The ED TPDU shall have a TPDU-NR which is allocated from a
separate sequence space from that of the DT TPDUs.

A transport entity shall allocate the sequence number zero to the
ED TPDU-NR of the first ED TPDU which it transmits for a



105











transport connection. For subsequent ED TPDU sent on the same
transport connection, the transport entity shall allocate a
sequence number one greater than the previous one.

Modulo 2**7 arithmetic shall be used when normal formats have
been selected and modulo 2**31 arithmetic shall be used when
extended formats have been selected.

The receiving transport entity shall transmit an EA TPDU with the
same sequence number in its YR-ETDU-NR field. If this number is
one greater than in the previously in sequence received ED TPDU,
the receiving transport entity shall transfer the data in the ED
TPDU to the TS-user.

If a transport entity does not receive an EA TPDU in
acknowledgement to an ED TPDU it shall follow the retransmission
procedures (see note and 12.2.1.2).

The sender of an ED TPDU shall not send any new DT TPDU with
higher TPDU-NR until it receives the EA TPDU.

NOTE - This procedure ensures that ED TPDUs are delivered to the
TS-user in sequence and that the TS-user does not receive data
corresponding to the same ED TPDU more than once. Also it
guarantees the arrival of the ED TPDU before any subsequently
sent DT TPDU.




12.2.3.5 Resequencing

The receiving transport entity shall deliver all DT TPDUs to the
TS-user in the order specified by the sequence number field.

DT TPDUs received out-of-sequence but within the transmit window
shall not be delivered to the TS-user until all in-sequence TPDUs
have been received. DT TPDU received out-of-sequence and outside
the transmit window shall be discarded.

Duplicate TPDUs can be detected because the sequence number
matches that of preciously received TPDUs. Sequence numbers
shall not be reused for the period L after their previous use.



106











Otherwise, a new, valid TPDU could be confused with a duplicated
TPDU which had previously been received and acknowledged.

Duplicated DT TPDUs shall be acknowledged, since the duplicated
TPDU may be the result of a retransmission resulting from the
loss of an AK TPDU.

The data contained in a duplicated DT TPDU shall be ignored.




12.2.3.6 Explicit Flow Control

The transport entities shall send an initial credit (which may
take the value 0) in the CDT field of the CR TPDU or CC TPDU.
This credit represents the initial value of the upper window edge
of the peer entity.

The transport entity which receives the CR TPDU or CC TPDU shall
consider its lower window edge as zero and its upper window edge
as the value in the CDT field in the received TPDU.

In order to authorize the transmission of DT TPDUs by its peer, a
transport entity may transmit an AK TPDU at any time.

The sequence number of an AK TPDU shall not exceed the sequence
number of the next expected DT TPDU, i.e. it shall not be greater
than the highest sequence number of a received DT TPDU, plus one.

A transport entity may send a duplicate AK TPDU containing the
same sequence number, CDT, and subsequence number field at any
time.

A transport entity which receives an AK TPDU shall consider the
value of the YR-TU-NR field as its new lower window edge if it is
greater than any previously received in a YR-TU-NR field, and the
sum of YR-TU-NR and CDT as its new upper window edge subject to
the procedures for sequencing AK TPDUs (see 12.2.3.8). A
transport entity shall not transmit or retransmit a DT TPDU with
a sequence number outside the transmit window.





107











12.2.3.7 Sequencing of received AK TPDUs

To allow a receiving transport entity to properly sequence a
series of AK TPDUs that all contain the same sequence number and
thereby use the correct CDT value, AK TPDUs may contain a
subsequence parameter. For the purpose of determining the
correct sequence of AK TPDUs, the absence of the subsequence
parameter shall be equivalent to the value of the parameter set
to zero.

An AK TPDU is defined to be in sequence if:

a) the sequence number is greater than in any previously
received AK TPDU, or

b) the sequence number is equal to the highest in any
previously received AK TPDU, and the subsequence parameter
is greater than in any previously received AK TPDU having
the same value for YR-TU-NR field, or

c) the sequence number and subsequence parameter are both
equal to the highest in any previously received AK TPDU
and the credit field is greater than or equal to that in
any previously received AK TPDU having the same YR-TU-NR
field.

A transport entity is not required to include the subsequence
number in its AK TPDUs. It may also choose not to use the
subsequence parameter in sequencing received AK TPDUs. If a
transport entity chooses not to recognize the subsequence
parameter it shall still sequence received AK TPDUs according to
12.2.3.7.a.

When the receiving transport entity recognizes an out of sequence
AK TPDU it shall ignore it.











108











12.2.3.8 Procedure for transmission of AK TPDUs

12.2.3.8.1 Retransmission of AK TPDUs for window synchronization

A transport entity shall not allow an interval W to pass without
the transmission of an AK TPDU. if the transport entity is not
using the procedure following setting CDT to zero (see
12.2.3.8.3) or reduction of the upper window edge (see
12.2.3.8.4), and does not have to acknowledge receipt of any DT
TPDU, then it shall achieve this by retransmission of the most
recent AK TPDU, with up-to-date window information.

NOTE - The use of the procedures defined in 12.2.3.8.3 and
12.2.3.8.4 are optional for any transport entity. The protocol
operates correctly either with or without these procedures which
are defined to enhance the efficiency of its operation. However,
if these procedures are not used then W must be set to ensure
enough retransmissions of the AK TPDU so that release of TC is
avoided. The value of W should be approximately
W = (T1 * N)/(N-1) when the procedures are not used.




12.2.3.8.2 Sequence control for transmission of AK TPDUs

To allow the receiving transport entity to process AK TPDUs in
the correct sequence, as described in 12.2.3.7, the subsequence
parameter may be included following reduction of CDT. If the
value of the subsequence number to be transmitted is zero, then
the parameter should be omitted.

The value of the subsequence parameter, if used, shall be zero
(either explicitly or by absence of the parameter) if the
sequence number is greater than the field in previous AK TPDUs,
sent by the transport entity.

If the sequence number is the same as the previous AK TPDU sent
and the CDT field is equal to or greater than the CDT field in
the previous AK TPDU sent then the subsequence parameter, if
used, shall be equal to that in the previously sent AK TPDU.

If the sequence number is the same as the previous AK TPDU sent



109











and the CDT field is less than the value of the CDT field in the
previous AK TPDU sent than the subsequence parameter, if used,
shall be one greater than the value in the previous AK TPDU..




12.2.3.8.3 Retransmission of AK TPDUs after CDT set to zero

Due to the possibility of loss of AK TPDUs, the upper window edge
as perceived by the transport entity transmitting an AK TPDU may
differ from that perceived by the intended recipient. To avoid
the possibility of extra delay, the retransmission procedure (see
12.2.1.2) should be followed for an AK TPDU, if it opens the
transmit window which has previously been closed by sending an AK
TPDU with CDT field set to zero.

The retransmission procedure, if used, terminates and the
procedure in 12.2.3.8.1 is used when:

a) an AK TPDU is received containing the flow control
confirmation parameter, whose lower window edge and your
subsequence fields are equal to the sequence number and
subsequence number in the retained AK TPDU and whose
credit field is not zero.

b) an AK TPDU is transmitted with a sequence number higher
than that in the retained AK TPDU, due to reception of a
DT TPDU whose sequence number is equal to the lower window
edge;

c) N transmissions of the retained AK TPDU have taken place.
In this case the transport entity shall continue to
transmit the AK TPDU at an interval of W.

An AK TPDU which is subject to the retransmission procedure shall
not contain the flow control confirmation parameter. If it is
required to transmit this parameter concurrently, an additional
AK TPDU shall be transmitted having the same values in the
sequence, subsequence (if applicable) and credit fields.






110











12.2.3.8.4 Retransmission procedures following reduction of the

upper window edge

This subclause specifies the procedure for retransmission of AK
TPDUs after a transport entity has reduced the upper window edge
(see 12.2.3.6) or for an AK TPDU with the credit field set to
zero. This procedure is used until the lower window edge exceeds
the highest value of the upper window edge ever transmitted (i.e.
the value existing at the time of credit reduction, unless a
higher value is retained from a previous credit reduction).

This retransmission procedure should be followed for any AK TPDU
which increases the upper window edge, unless an AK TPDU has been
received containing a flow control confirmation parameter, which
corresponds to an AK TPDU transmitted following credit reduction,
for which the sum of the credit and lower window edge fields
(i.e. the upper window edge value) is greater than the lower
window edge (YR-TU-NR field) of the transmitted AK TPDU.

This retransmission procedure for any particular AK TPDU shall
terminate when:

a) an AK TPDU is received containing the flow control
confirmation parameter, whose lower window edge and your
subsequence fields are equal to the lower window edge and
subsequence number in the retained AK TPDU; or

b) N transmissions of the retained AK TPDU have taken place.
In this case the transport entity shall continue to
transmit the AK TPDU at an interval of W.

An AK TPDU which is subject to the retransmission procedure shall
not contain the flow control confirmation parameter. If it is
required to transmit this parameter concurrently, an additional
AK TPDU shall be transmitted having the same values in the
sequence, subsequence (if applicable) and credit fields.

NOTE - Retransmission of AK TPDUs is normally not necessary,
except following explicit closing of the window (i.e.
transmission of an AK TPDU with CDT field set to zero). If
data is available to be transmitted, the retransmission
procedure for DT TPDUs will ensure that an AK TPDU is received



111











granting further credit where this is available. Following
credit reduction, this may no longer be so, because
retransmission may be inhibited by the credit reduction. The
rules described in this clause avoid extra delay.

The rules for determining whether to apply the retransmission
procedure to an AK TPDU may be expressed alternatively as
follows. Let:

LWE = lower window edge
UWE = upper window edge
KUWE = lower bound on upper window edge
held by remote transport entity

The retransmission procedure is to be used whenever:

(UWE>LWE) and (KUWE = LWE)

i.e. when the window is opened and it is not known definitely
that the remote transport entity is aware of this.

KUWE is maintained as follows. When credit is reduced, KUWE is
set to LWE. Subsequently, it is increased only upon receipt of a
valid flow control confirmation (i.e. one which matches the
retained lower window edge and subsequence). In this case KUWE
is set to the implied upper window edge of the flow control
confirmation, i.e. the sum of its lower window edge and your
credit fields. By this means, it can be ensured that KUWE is
always less than or equal to the actual upper window edge in use
by the transmitter of DT TPDUs.




12.2.3.9 Use of Flow Control Confirmation parameter

At any time, an AK TPDU may be transmitted containing a flow
control confirmation parameter. The lower window edge, your
subsequence and your credit fields shall be set to the same
values as the corresponding fields in the most recently received
in sequence AK TPDU.





112











An AK TPDU containing a flow control confirmation parameter
should be transmitted whenever:

a) a duplicate AK TPDU is received, with the value of YR-TU-
NR, CDT, and subsequence fields equal to the most recently
received AK TPDU, but not itself containing the flow
control confirmation parameter;

b) an AK TPDU is received which increases the upper window
edge but not the lower window edge, and the upper window
edge was formerly equal to the lower window edge; or

c) an AK TPDU is received which increases the upper window
edge but not the lower window edge, and the lower window
edge is lower than the highest value of the upper window
edge received and subsequently reduced (i.e. following
credit reduction).




12.2.4 Procedures for Release

12.2.4.1 Timers used for Release

There are no timers used only for release.




12.2.4.2 General Procedures for Release

The transport entity shall use the explicit variant of normal
release (see 6.7).












113











13 STRUCTURE AND ENCODING OF TPDUs

13.1 Validity

Table 8 specifies those TPDUs which are valid for each class and
the code for each TPDU.

KEY: xxxx (bits 4-1): used to signal the CDT (set to 0000
in classes 0 and 1)

zzzz (bits 4-1): used to signal CDT in classes 2, 3,
4 set to 1111 in class 1

NF: Not available when the non explicit
flow control option is selected.

NRC: Not available when the receipt
confirmation option is selected.

NOTE - These codes are already in use in related protocols
defined by standards oganizations other than CCITT/ISO.

























114
















+-------------------------------------------------------------+
| | Validity within | | |
| | classes | see | Code |
| |-------------------| Clause| |
| | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | | |
|-----------------------|-------------------|-------|---------|
|CR Connection Request | x | x | x | x | x | 13.3 |1110 xxxx|
|-----------------------|---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
|CC Connection Confirm | x | x | x | x | x | 13.4 |1101 xxxx|
|-----------------------|---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
|DR Disconnect Request | x | x | x | x | x | 13.5 |1000 0000|
|-----------------------|---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
|DC Disconnect Confirm | | x | x | x | x | 13.6 |1100 0000|
|-----------------------|---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
|DT Data | x | x | x | x | x | 13.7 |1111 0000|
|-----------------------|---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
|ED Expedited Data | | x | NF| x | x | 13.8 |0001 0000|
|-----------------------|---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
|AK Data Acknowledgement| |NRC| NF| x | x | 13.9 |0110 zzzz|
|-----------------------|---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
|EA Expedited Data | | x | NF| x | x | 13.10 |0010 0000|
|Acknowledgement | | | | | | | |
|-----------------------|---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
|RJ Reject | | x | | x | | 13.11 |0101 zzzz|
|-----------------------|---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
|ER TPDU Error | x | x | x | x | x | 13.12 |0111 0000|
|-----------------------|---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
| | | | | | | - |0000 0000|
| |---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
|not available | | | | | | - |0011 0000|
| (see note) |---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
| | | | | | | - |1001 xxxx|
| |---|---|---|---|---|-------|---------|
| | | | | | | - |1010 xxxx|
+-------------------------------------------------------------+

Table 8. TPDU code




115











13.2 Structure

All the transport protocol data units (TPDUs) shall contain an
integral number of octets. The octets in a TPDU are numbered
starting from 1 and increasing in the order they are put into an
NSDU. The bits in an octet are numbered from 1 to 8, where bit 1
is the low-ordered bit.

When consecutive octets are used to represent a binary number,
the lower octet number has the least significant value.

NOTE - When the encoding of a TPDU is represented using a
diagram in this clause, the following representation is used:

a) octets are shown with the lowest numbered octet to the
left, higher numbered octets being further to the right;

b) within an octet, bits are shown with bit 8 to the left and
bit 1 to the right.

TPDUs shall contain, in the following order:

a) the header, comprising:

1) the length indicator (LI) field;

2) the fixed part;

3) the variable part, if present;

b) the data field, if present.

This structure is illustrated below:

octet 1 2 3 4 ... n n+1 ... p p+1 ...end
+---+-------------+--------------+-----------+
| LI| fixed part | variable part| data field|
+---+-------------+--------------+-----------+
<--------------- header ------>







116











13.2.1 Length indicator field

This field is contained in the first octet of the TPDUs. The
length is indicated by a binary number, with a maximum value of
254 (1111 1110). The length indicated shall be the header length
in octets including parameters, but excluding the length
indicator field and user data, if any. The value 255 (1111 1111)
is reserved for possible extensions. If the length indicated
exceeds the size of the NS-user data which is present, this is a
protocol error.




13.2.2 Fixed part

13.2.2.1 General

The fixed part contains frequently occurring parameters including
the code of the TPDU. The length and the structure of the fixed
part are defined by the TPDU code and in certain cases by the
protocol class and the formats in use (normal or extended). If
any of the parameters of the fixed part have an invalid value, or
if the fixed part cannot be contained with the header (as defined
by LI) this is a protocol error.

NOTE - In general, the TPDU code defines the fixed part
unambiguously. However, different variants may exist for the
same TPDU code (see normal and extended formats).




13.2.2.2 TPDU code

This field contains the TPDU code and is contained in octet 2 of
the header. It is used to define the structure of the remaining
header. This field is a full octet except in the following
cases:







117











1110 xxxx Connection Request
1101 xxxx Connection Confirm
0101 xxxx Reject
0110 xxxx Data Acknowledgement

where xxxx (bits 4-1) is used to signal the CDT.

Only those codes defined in 13.1 are valid.




13.2.3 Variable part

The variable part is used to define less frequently used
parameters. If the variable part is present, it shall contain
one or more parameters.

NOTE - The number of parameters that may be contained in the
variable part is indicated by the length of the variable part
which is LI minus the length of the fixed part.

Each parameter contained within the variable part is structured
as follows:

Bits 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Octets +------------------------------------+
n+1 | Parameter Code |
|------------------------------------|
n+2 | Parameter Length |
| Indication (e.g. m) |
|------------------------------------|
n+3 | |
| Parameter Value |
n+2+m | |
+------------------------------------|










118











- The parameter code field is coded in binary;

NOTE - Without extensions, it provides a maximum number of 255
different parameters. However, as noted below, bits 8 and 7
cannot take every possible value, so the practical maximum
number of different parameters is less. Parameter code 1111
1111 is reserved for possible extensions of the parameter code.

- The parameter length indication indicates the length, in
octets, of the parameter value field.

NOTE - The length is indicated by a binary number, m, with a
theoretical maximum value of 255. The practical maximum value
of m is lower. For example, in the case of a single parameter
contained within the variable part, two octets are required for
the parameter code and the parameter length indication itself.
Thus, the value of m is limited to 248. For larger fixed parts
of the header and for each succeeding parameter, the maximum
value of m decreases.

- The parameter value field contains the value of the parameter
identified in the parameter code field.

- No parameter codes use bits 8 and 7 with the value 00.

- The parameters defined in the variable part may be in any
order. If any parameter is duplicated then the later value
shall be used. A parameter not defined in this International
Standard shall be treated as a protocol error in any received
TPDU except a CR TPDU; in a CR TPDU it shall be ignored. If
the responding transport entity selects a class for which a
parameter of the CR TPDU is not defined, it may ignore this
parameter, except the class and option, and alternative
protocol class parameters which shall always be interpreted. A
parameter defined in this International Standard but having an
invalid value shall be treated as a protocol error in any
received TPDU except a CR TPDU. In a CR TPDU it shall be
treated as a protocol error if it is either the class and
option parameter or the alternative class parameter or the
additional option parameter; otherwise it shall be either
ignored or treated as a protocol error.





119











13.2.3.1 Checksum Parameter (Class 4 only)

All TPDU types may contain a 16-bit checksum parameter in their
variable part. This parameter shall be present in a CR TPDU and
shall be present in all other TPDUs except when the non use of
checksum option is selected.

Parameter Code: 1100 0011
Parameter Length: 2
Parameter Value: Result of checksum algorithm. This algorithm
is specified in 6.17.




13.2.4 Data Field

This field contains transparent user data. Restrictions on its
size are noted for each TPDU.




13.3 Connection Request (CR) TPDU

The length of the CR TPDU shall not exceed 128 octets.




13.3.1 Structure

The structure of the CR TPDU shall be as follows:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 p p+1...end
+--+------+---------+---------+---+---+------+-------+---------+
|LI|CR CDT| DST - REF |SRC-REF|CLASS |VARIAB.|USER |
| |1110 |0000 0000|0000 0000| | |OPTION|PART |DATA |
+--+------+---------+---------+---+---+------+-------+---------+







120











13.3.2 LI

See 13.2.1




13.3.3 Fixed Part (Octets 2 to 7)

The structure of this part shall contain:

a) CR : Connection Request Code: 1110. Bits 8-5 of
octet 2;

b) CDT : Initial Credit Allocation (set to 0000 in
Classes 0 and 1 when specified as preferred
class). Bits 4-1 of octet 2;

c) DST-REF : Set to zero;

d) SRC-REF : Reference selected by the transport entity
initiating the CR TPDU to identify the
requested transport connection;

e) CLASS and Bits 8-5 of octet 7 defines the preferred
OPTION: transport protocol class to be operated over
the requested transport connection. This
field shall take one of the following values:

0000 Class 0
0001 Class 1
0010 Class 2
0011 Class 3
0100 Class 4

The CR TPDU contains the first choice of class in the fixed part.
Second and subsequent choices are listed in the variable part if
required.

Bits 4-1 of octet 7 define options to be used on the requested
transport connection as follows:





121












+-----|-----------------------------------------------+
| BIT | OPTION |
|-----|-----------------------------------------------|
| 4 | 0 always |
| | |
| 3 | 0 always |
| | |
| 2 | =0 use of normal formats in all classes |
| | =1 use of extended formats in Classes 2,3,4 |
| | |
| 1 | =0 use of explicit flow control in Class 2 |
| | =1 no use of explicit flow control in |
| | Class 2 |
+-----------------------------------------------------+


NOTES

1. The connection establishment procedure (see 6.5) does not
permit a given CR TPDU to request use of transport expedited
data transfer service (additional option parameter) and no
use of explicit flow control in Class 2 (bit 1 = 1).

2. Bits 4 to 1 are always zero in Class 0 and have no meaning.




13.3.4 Variable Part (Octets 8 to p)

The following parameters are permitted in the variable part:

a) Transport Service Access Point Identifier (TSAP-ID)

Parameter code: 1100 0001 for the identifier of the
Calling TSAP.
1100 0010 for the identifier of the
Called TSAP
Parameter length: not defined in this standard
Parameter value: identifier of the calling or called
TSAP respectively.




122











If a TSAP-ID is given in the request it may be returned in
the confirmation.

b) TPDU size

This parameter defines the proposed maximum TPDU size (in
octets including the header) to be used over the requested
transport connection. The coding of this parameter is:

Parameter code: 1100 0000
Parameter Length: 1 octet

Parameter value:

0000 1101 8192 octets (not allowed in Class 0)
0000 1100 4096 octets (not allowed in Class 0)
0000 1011 2048 octets
0000 1010 1024 octets
0000 1001 512 octets
0000 1000 256 octets
0000 0111 128 octets

Default value is 0000 0111 (128 octets)

c) Version Number (not used if Class 0 is the preferred
class)

Parameter code: 1100 0100
Parameter length: 1 octet
Parameter value field: 0000 0001

Default value is 0000 0001 (not used in Class 0)

d) Security Parameters (not used if Class 0 is the preferred
class)

This parameter is user defined.
Parameter code: 1100 0101
Parameter length: user defined
Parameter value: user defined

e) Checksum (used only if class 4 is the preferred class)
(see 13.2.3.1)



123











This parameter shall always be present in a CR TPDU
requesting Class 4, even if the checksum selection
parameter is used to request non-use of the checksum
facility.

f) Additional Option Selection (not used if Class 0 is the
preferred class)

This parameter defines the selection to be made as to
whether or not additional options are to be used.

Parameter code: 1100 0110
Parameter length: 1
Parameter value:


+------------------------------------------------------+
|BIT| OPTION |
|---|--------------------------------------------------|
| 4 | 1= Use of network expedited in Class 1 |
| | 0= Non use of network expedited in Class 1 |
| | |
| 3 | 1= Use of receipt confirmation in Class 1 |
| | 0= Use of explicit AK variant in Class 1 |
| | |
| 2 | 0= 16-bit checksum defined in 6.17 is to be used|
| | in Class 4 |
| | 1= 16-bit checksum defined in 6.17 is not to be |
| | used on Class 4 |
| | |
| 1 | 1= Use of transport expedited data transfer |
| | service |
| | 0= No use of transport expedited data transfer |
| | service |
+------------------------------------------------------+

Default value is 000 0001

Bits related to options particular to a class are not
meaningful if that class is not proposed and may take any
value.





124











g) Alternative protocol class(es) (not used if Class 0 is the
preferred class)

Parameter code: 1100 0111
Parameter length: n

Parameter value encoded as a sequence of single octets.
Each octet is encoded as for octet 7 but with bits 4-1 set
to zero (i.e. no alternative option selections permitted).

h) Acknowledge Time (used only if class 4 is the preferred
class)

This parameter conveys the maximum acknowledge time AL to
the remote transport entity. It is an indication only,
and is not subject to negotiation (see 12.2.1.1.3)
Parameter code: 1000 0101
Parameter length: 2
Parameter value: n, a binary number where n is the
maximum acknowledge time, expressed
in milliseconds.

j) Throughput (not used if class 0 is the preferred class)

Parameter code: 1000 1001
Parameter length: 12 or 24
Parameter value:

1st 12 Octets: maximum throughput, as follows:

1st 3 octets: Target value, calling-called user
direction
2nd 3 octets: Min. acceptable, calling-called user
direction
3rd 3 octets: Target value, called-calling user
direction
4th 3 octets: Min. acceptable, called-calling user
direction

2nd 12 octets (optional): average throughput, as follows:

5th 3 octets: Target value, calling-called user
direction



125











6th 3 octets: Min. acceptable, calling-called user
direction
7th 3 octets: Target value, called-calling user
direction
8th 3 octets: Min. acceptable, called-calling user
direction

Where the average throughput is omitted, it is considered
to have the same value as the maximum throughput.

Values are expressed in octets per second.

k) Residual error rate (not used if class 0 is the preferred
class)

Parameter code: 1000 1001
Parameter length: 12
1st 3 octets: Target value, calling-called user
direction
2nd 3 octets: Min. acceptable, calling-called user
direction
3rd 3 octets: Target value, called-calling user
direction
4th 3 octets: Min. acceptable, called-calling user
direction

l) Residual error rate (not used if class 0 is the preferred
class)

Parameter code: 1000 0110
Parameter length: 3
Parameter value:
1st octet: Target value, power of 10
2nd octet: Min. acceptable, power of 10
3rd octet: TSDU size of interest, expressed as a
power of 2

m) Priority (not used if class 0 is the preferred class)

Parameter code: 1000 0111
Parameter length: 2
Parameter value: Integer (0 is the highest priority)




126











n) Transit delay (not used if class 0 is the preferred class)

Parameter code: 1000 1000
Parameter length: 8
Parameter value:
1st 2 octets: Target value, calling-called user
direction
2nd 2 octets: Max. acceptable, calling-called user
direction
3rd 2 octets: Target value, called-calling user
direction
4th 2 octets: Max. acceptable, called-calling user
direction

Values are expressed in milliseconds, and are based upon a
TSDU size of 128 octets.

p) assignment time (not used if class 0, 2 or class 4 is the
preferred class)

This parameter conveys the Time to Try Reassignment (TTR)
which will be used when following the procedure for
Reassignment after Failure (see 6.12).
Parameter code: 1000 1011
Parameter length: 2
Parameter value: n, a binary number where n is the TTR
value expressed in seconds.




13.3.5 User Data (Octets p+1 to the end)

No user data are permitted in Class 0, and are optional in the
other classes. Where permitted, it may not exceed 32 octets.











127











13.4 Connection Confirm (CC) TPDU

13.4.1 Structure

The structure of the CC TPDU shall be as follows:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 p p+1 ...end
+---+----+---+---+---+---+---+-------+--------+-------------+
|LI | CC CDT|DST-REF|SRC-REF| CLASS |VARIABLE| USER |
| |1101| | | | | | OPTION| PART | DATA |
+---+----+---+---+---+---+---+-------+--------+-------------+




13.4.2 LI

See 13.2.1




13.4.3 Fixed Part (Octets 2 to 7)

The fixed part shall contain:

a) CC: Connection Confirm Code: 1101. Bits 8-5 of octet 2;

b) CDT: Initial Credit Allocation (set to 0000 in Classes 0
and 1). Bits 4-1 of octet 2;

c) DST-REF: Reference identifying the requested transport
connection at the remote transport entity;

d) SRC-REF: Reference identifying the requested transport
connection at the remote transport entity.

e) Class and Option: Defines the selected transport protocol
class and option to be operated over the accepted
transport connection according to the negotiation rules
specified in 6.5;





128











13.4.4 Variable Part (Octet 8 to p)

The parameters are defined in 13.3.4 and are subject to the
constraints states in 6.5 (connection establishment). Parameters
ruled out by selection of an alternative class and option shall
not be present.




13.4.5 User Data (Octets p+1 to the end)

No user data are permitted in class 0, and are optional in the
other classes. Where permitted, it may not exceed 32 octets.
The user data are subject to the constraints of the negotiation
rules (see 6.5).




13.5 Disonnect Request (DR) TPDU

13.5.1 Structure

The structure of the DR TPDU shall be as follows:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 p p+1 ...end
+--+---------+----+-----+----+-----+------+--------+----------+
|LI| DR | DST-REF. | SRC-REF. |REASON|VARIABLE| USER |
| |1000 0001| | | | | | PART | DATA |
+--+---------+----+-----+----+-----+------+--------+----------+




13.5.2 LI

See Section 13.2.1








129











13.5.3 Fixed Part (Octets 2 to 7

The fixed part shall contain:

a) DR: Disconnect Request Code: 1000 0000;

b) DST-REF: Reference identifying the transport connection
at the remote transport entity;

c) SRC-REF: Reference identifying the transport connection
at the transport entity initiating the TPDU. Value zero
when reference is unassigned;

d) REASON: Defines the reason for disconnecting the
transport connection. This field shall take one of the
following values:

The following values may be used for Classes 1 to 4:

1) 128 + 0 - Normal disconnect initiated by session
entity
2) 128 + 1 - Remote transport entity congestion at
connect request time
3) *128 + 2 - Connection negotiation failed (i.e. proposed
class(es) not supported)
4) 128 + 3 - Duplicate source reference detected for the
same pair of NSAPS.
5) 128 + 4 - Mismatched references
6) 128 + 5 - Protocol error
7) 128 + 6 - Not used
8) 128 + 7 - Reference overflow
9) 128 + 8 - Connection request refused on this network
connection
10) 128 + 9 - Not used
11) 128 + 10- Header or parameter length invalid











130











The following values can be used for all classes:

12) 0 - Reason not specified
13) 1 - Congestion at TSAP
14) *2 - Session entity not attached to TSAP
15) *3 - Address unknown

NOTE - Reasons marked with an asterisk (*) may be reported to
the TS-user as persistent, other reasons as transient.




13.5.4 Variable Part (Octets 8 to p)

The variable part may contain

a) A parameter allowing additional information related to the
clearing of the connection.

Parameter code: 1110 0000
Parameter length: Any value provided that the length of
the DR TPDU does not exceed the maximum
agreed TPDU size or 128 when the DR
TPDU is used during the connection
refusal procedure
Parameter value: Additional information. The content of
this field is user defined.

b) Checksum (see 13.2.3.1)




13.5.5 User Data (Octets p+1 to the end)

This field shall not exceed 64 octets and is used to carry TS-
user data. The successful transfer of this data is not
guaranteed by the transport protocol. When a DR TPDU is used in
Class 0 it shall not contain this field.






131











13.6 Disconnect Confirm (DC) TPDU

This TPDU shall not be used in Class 0.




13.6.1 Structure

The structure of DC TPDU shall be as follows:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 p
+----+-----------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------+--------+
| LI | DC | DST REF | SRC REF | Variable Part |
| | 1100 0000 | | | | | | |
+----+-----------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------+--------+




13.6.2 LI

See 13.2.1




13.6.3 Fixed Part (Octets 2 to 6)

The fixed part shall contain:

a) DC: Disconnect Confirm Code: 1100 0000;

b) DST-REF: See 13.4.3;

c) SRC-REF: See 13.4.3.










132











13.6.4 Variable Part

The variable part shall contain the checksum parameter if the
condition in (see 13.2.3.1) applies.




13.7 Data (DT) TPDU

13.7.1 Structure

Depending on the class and the option the DT TPDU shall have one
of the following structures.

a) Normal format for Classes 0 and 1

1 2 3 4 5 ... end
+----+-----------+-----------+------------ - - - - - -------+
| LI | DT | TPDU-NR | User Data |
| | 1111 0000 | and EOT | |
+----+-----------+-----------+------------ - - - - - -------+


b) Normal format for Classes 2, 3 and 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 p p+1 ... end
+----+---------+---+---+-------+-----+-------+----------- - - -+
| LI | DT |DST-REF|TPDU-NR|Variable Part|User Data |
| |1111 0000| | |and EOT| | | |
+----+---------+---+---+-------+-----+-------+----------- - - -+

c) Extended Format for use in Classes 2, 3 and 4 when
selected during connection establishment.

1 2 3 4 5,6 7,8 9 p p+1 ... end
+----+---------+---+---+---------+--------+---------- - - -+
| LI | DT |DST-REF| TPDU-NR |Variable|User Data |
| |1111 0000| | | and EOT | Part | |
+----+---------+---+---+---------+--------+---------- - - -+






133











13.7.2 LI

See 13.2.1




13.7.3 Fixed Part

The fixed part shall contain:

a) DT: Data Transfer Code: 1111 0000;

b) DST-REF: See 13.4.3;

c) EOT: When set to ONE, indicates that the current DT
TPDU is the last data unit of a complete DT TPDU
sequence (End of TSDU). EOT is bit 8 of octet 3
in class 0 and 1, bit 8 of octet 5 for normal
formats for classes 2, 3 and 4 and bit 8 of
octet 8 for extended formats;

d) TPDU-NR: TPDU send Sequence Number (zero in Class 0).
May take any value in Class 2 without explicit
flow control. TPDU-NR is bits 7-1 of octet 3
for classes 0 and 1, bits 7-1 of octet 5 for
normal formats in classes 2, 3 and 4, octets 5,
6 and 7 together with bits 7-1 of octet 8 for
extended formats.

NOTE - Depending on the class, the fixed part of the DT TPDU
uses the following octets:

Classes 0 and 1: Octets 2 to 3;
Classes 2,3,4 normal format: Octets 2 to 5;
Classes 2,3,4 extended format: Octets 2 to 8.










134











13.7.4 Variable Part

The variable part shall contain the checksum parameter if the
condition in see 13.2.3.1 applies.




13.7.5 User Data Field

This field contains data of the TSDU being transmitted.

NOTE - The length of this field is limited to the negotiated TPDU
size for this transport connection minus 3 octets in Classes 0
and 1, and minus 5 octets (normal header format) or 8 octets
(extended header format) in the other classes. The variable
part, if present, may further reduce the size of the user data
field.




13.8 Expedited Data (ED) TPDU

The ED TPDU shall not be used in Class 0 or in Class 2 when the
no explicit flow control option is selected or when the expedited
data transfer service has not been selected for the connection.




13.8.1 Structure

Depending on the format negotiated at connection establishment
the ED TPDU shall have one of the following structures:











135











a) Normal Format (classes 1, 2, 3, 4)

1 2 3 4 5 6 p p+1 ... end
+--+---------+---+---+---------+-----+-------+---------------+
|LI| ED |DST-REF|EDTPDU-NR|Variable Part|User Data |
| |0001 0000| | |and EOT | | | |
+--+---------+---+---+---------+-----+-------+---------------+


b) Extended Format (for use in classes 2, 3, 4 when selected
during connection establishment).


1 2 3 4 5,6,7,8 9 p p+1 ... end
+--+---------+---+---+---------+-----+-------+---------------+
|LI| ED |DST-REF|EDTPDU-NR|Variable Part|User Data |
| |0001 0000| | |and EOT | | | |
+--+---------+---+---+---------+-----+-------+---------------+




13.8.2 LI

See 13.2.1




13.8.3 Fixed Part

The fixed part shall contain:

a) ED: Expedited Data code: 0001 0000;

b) DST-REF: see 13.4.3;

c) ED-TPDU-NR: Expedited TPDU identification number. ED-
TPDU-NR is used in classes 1, 3 and 4 and may
take any value in Class 2. Bits 7-1 of octet
5 for normal formats and octets 5, 6 and 7
together with bits 7-1 of octet 8 for
extended formats;



136











d) EOT: end of TSDU always set to 1 (bit 8 of octet 5
for normal formats and bit 8 of octet 8 for
extended formats).

NOTE - Depending on the format the fixed part shall be either
octets 2 to 5 or 2 to 8.




13.8.4 Variable Part

The variable part shall contain the checksum parameter if the
condition defined in 13.2.3.1 applies.




13.8.5 User Data Field

This field contains an expedited TSDU (1 to 16 octets).




13.9 Data Acknowledgement (AK) TPDU

This TPDU shall not be used for Class 0 and Class 2 when the 'no
explicit flow control' option is selected, and for Class 1 when
the network receipt confirmation option is selected.




13.9.1 Structure

Depending on the class and option agreed the AK TPDU shall have
one of the following structures:








137











a) Normal Format (classes 1, 2, 3, 4)

1 2 3 4 5 6 p
+--+--------+----------+------------+---------------+
|LI| AK CDT | DST-REF | YR-TU-NR | Variable Part |
| | 0110 | | | |
+--+--------+----------+------------+---------------+

b) Extended Format (for use in classes 2, 3, 4 when selected
during connection establishment).

1 2 3 4 5,6,7,8 9,10 11 p
+--+---------+---------+----------+-----+--------+
|LI| AK | DST-REF | YR-TU-NR | CDT |Variable|
| |0110 0000| | | | Part |
+--+---------+---------+----------+-----+--------+




13.9.2 LI

See 13.2.1




13.9.3 Fixed Part

The fixed part shall contain (in octet 2 to 5 when normal format
is used, 2 to 10 otherwise) the following parameters:

a) AK: Acknowledgement code: 0110;

b) CDT: Credit Value (set to 1111 in class 1). Bits
4-1 of octet 2 for normal formats and octets 9
and 10 for extended formats;

c) DST-REF: See 13.4.3;

d) YR-TU-NR: Sequence number indicating the next expected DT
TPDU number. For normal formats, bits 7-1 of
octet 5; bit 8 of octet 5 is not significant



138











and shall take the value 0. For extended
formats, octets 5, 6 and 7 together with bits
7-1 of octet 8; bit 8 of octet 8 is not
significant and shall take the value 0.




13.9.4 Variable Part

The variable part contains the following parameters:

a) Checksum See 13.2.3.1 if the condition in 13.2.3.1
applies;

b) Subsequence number when optionally used under the
conditions defined in class 4. This parameter is used to
ensure that AK TPDUs are processed in the correct
sequence. If it is absent, this is equivalent to
transmitting the parameter with a value of zero.
Parameter code: 1000 1010
Parameter length: 2
Parameter value: 16-bit sub-sequence number;

c) Flow Control Confirmation Class 4 when optionally used
under the conditions defined in class 4. This parameter
contains a copy of the information received in an AK TPDU,
to allow the transmitter of the AK TPDU to be certain of
the state of the receiving transport entity (see
12.2.3.10).
Parameter code: 1000 1011
Parameter length: 8
Parameter value: defined as follows

1. Lower Window Edge (32 bits)
Bit 8 of octet 4 is set to zero, the remainder
contains the YR-TU-NR value of the received AK TPDU.
When normal format has been selected, only the least
significant seven bits (bits 1 to 7 of octet 1) of
this field are significant.

2. Your Sub-Sequence (16 bits)
Contains the value of the sub-sequence parameter of



139











the received AK TPDU, or zero if this parameter was
not present.

3. Your Credit (16 bits)
Contains the value of the CDT field of the received AK
TPDU. When normal format has been selected, only the
least significant four bits (bits 1 to 4 of octet 1)
of this field are significant.




13.10 Expedited Data Acknowledgement (EA) TPDU

This TPDU shall not be used for Class 0 and Class 2 when the no
explicit flow control option is selected.




13.10.1 Structure

Depending on the option (normal or extended format) the TPDU
structure shall be:

a) Normal Format (classes 1,2,3,4)

1 2 3 4 5 6 p
+--+---------+---------+----------+------+------+
|LI| EA | DST-REF | YR-TU-NR |Variable Part|
| |0010 0000| | | | |
+--+---------+---------+----------+------+------+

b) Extended Format (for use in classes 2, 3, 4 if selected
during connection establishment)

1 2 3 4 5,6,7,8 9 p
+--+---------+---------+----------+------+------+
|LI| EA | DST-REF | YR-TU-NR |Variable Part|
| |0010 0000| | | | |
+--+---------+---------+----------+------+------+





140











13.10.2 LI

See 13.2.1




13.10.3 Fixed Part

The fixed part shall contain (in octets 2 to 5 when normal format
is used, in octets 2 to 8 otherwise):

a) EA: Expedited Acknowledgement code: 0010 0000;

b) DST-REF: See 13.4.3;

c) YR-EDTU-NR: Identification of the ED TPDU being
acknowledged. May take any value in Class 2;

For normal formats bits 7-1 of octet 5; bit 8
of octet 5 is not significant and shall take
the value 0. For extended formats, octets
5,6 and 7 together with bits 7-1 of octet 8;
bit 8 of octet 8 is not significant and shall
take the value 0.




13.10.4 Variable Part

The variable part may contain the checksum parameter (see
13.2.3.1).




13.11 Reject (RJ) TPDU

The RJ TPDU shall not be used in Classes 0, 2 and 4.






141











13.11.1 Structure

The RJ TPDU shall have one of the following formats:

a) Normal Format (classes 1 and 3)

1 2 3 4 5
+----+----------+----+----+------------+
| LI | RJ CDT | DST-REF | YR-TU-NR |
| | 0101 | | | |
+----+----------+----+----+------------+

b) Extended Format (for use in classes 3 if selected during
connection establishment).

1 2 3 4 5,6,7,8 9,10
+--+-----------+----+----+----------+-----+
|LI| RJ | DST-REF | YR-TU-NR | CDT |
| | 0101 0000 | | | | |
+--+-----------+----+----+----------+-----+




13.11.2 LI

See 13.2.1.




13.11.3 Fixed Part

The fixed part shall contain (in octets 2 to 5 when normal format
is used, in octets 2 to 10 otherwise):

a) RJ: Reject Code: 0101. Bits 8-5 of octet 2;

b) CDT: Credit Value (set to 1111 in class 1). Bits
4-1 of octet 2 for normal formats and octets 9
and 10 for extended formats;

c) DST-REF: See 13.4.3;



142











d) YR-TU-NR: Sequence number indicating the next expected
TPDU from which retransmission should occur.

For normal formats, bits 7-1 of octet 5; bit 8
of octet 5 is not significant and shall take
the value 0. For extended formats, octets 5,6
and 7 together with bits 7-1 of octet 8; bit 8
of octet 8 is not significant and shall take
the value 0.




13.11.4 Variable Part

There is no variable part for this TPDU type.




13.12 TPDU Error (ER) TPDU

13.12.1 Structure

1 2 3 4 5 6 P
+----+-----------+----+----+--------+----------+
| LI | ER | DST-REF | Reject | Variable |
| | 0111 0000 | | | Cause | Part |
+----+-----------+----+----+--------+----------+




13.12.2 LI

See 13.2.1










143











13.12.3 Fixed Part

The fixed part shall contain:

a) ER: TPDU Error Code: 0111 0000;

b) DST-REF: See 13.4.3;

c) REJECT CAUSE: 0000 0000 Reason not specified
0000 0001 Invalid parameter code
0000 0010 Invalid TPDU type
0000 0011 Invalid parameter value.




13.12.4 Variable Part

The variable part may contain the following parameters:

a) Invalid TPDU

Parameter code: 1100 0001

Parameter length: number of octets of the value field

Parameter Value: Contains the bit pattern of the rejected
TPDU up to and including the octet
which caused the rejection. This
parameter is mandatory in Class 0.

b) Checksum

This parameter shall be present if the condition in
13.2.3.1 applies.











144











SECTION THREE. CONFORMANCE




14 CONFORMANCE

14.1

A system claiming to implement the procedures specified in this
standard shall comply with the requirements in 14.2 - 14.5.




14.2

The system shall implement Class 0 or Class 2 or both.




14.3

If the system implements Class 3 or Class 4, it shall also
implement Class 2.




14.4

If the system implements Class 1, it shall also implement Class
0.












145











14.5

For each class which the system claims to implement, the system
shall be capable of:

a) initiating CR TPDUs or responding to CR TPDUs with CC
TPDUs or both;

b) responding to any other TPDU and operating network service
in accordance with the procedures for the class;

c) operating all the procedures for the class listed as
mandatory in table 9;

d) operating those procedures for the class listed as
optional in table 9 for which conformance is claimed;

e) handling all TPDUs of lengths up to the lesser value of:

1) the maximum length for the class;

2) the maximum for which conformance is claimed.

NOTE - This requirement indicates that TPDU sizes of 128
octets are always implemented.




14.6 Claims of Conformance Shall State

a) which class or classes of protocol are implemented;

b) whether the system is capable of initiating or responding
to CR TPDUs or both;

c) which of the procedures listed as optional in table 9 are
implemented;








146











d) the maximum size of TPDU implemented; the value shall be
chosen from the following list and all values in the list
which are less than this maximum shall be implemented:

128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096 or 8192 octets.









































147















+------------------------------------------------------------+
| PROCEDURE | CLASS 0 | CLASS 1 |
|--------------------------|----------------|----------------|
| | | |
|TPDU with checksum | NA | NA |
|TPDU wihout checksum | mandatory | mandatory |
| | | |
|--------------------------|----------------|----------------|
|Expedited data transfer | NA | mandatory |
|No expedited data transfer| mandatory | mandatory |
| | | |
|--------------------------|----------------|----------------|
|Flow control in Class 2 | NA | NA |
|No flow control in Class 2| NA | NA |
| | | |
|--------------------------|----------------|----------------|
|Normal formats | mandatory | mandatory |
|Extended formats | NA | NA |
| | | |
|--------------------------|----------------|----------------|
|Use of receipt confirma- | | |
|tion in Class 1 | NA | optional |
|No use of receipt con- | | |
|firmation in Class 1 | NA | mandatory |
| | | |
|--------------------------|----------------|----------------|
|Use of network expedited | | |
|in Class 1 | NA | optional |
|No use of network expedi- | | |
|ted in Class 1 | NA | mandatory |
| | | |
+------------------------------------------------------------+

NA indicates the procedure is not applicable.
Table 9. (First of 2 pages) Provision of options







148











+------------------------------------------------------------+
| PROCEDURE | CLASS 2 | CLASS 3 | CLASS 4 |
|--------------------------|----------|----------|-----------|
| | | | |
|TPDU with checksum |NA |NA |mandatory |
|TPDU wihout checksum |mandatory |mandatory |optional |
| | | | |
|--------------------------|----------|----------|-----------|
|Expedited data transfer |mandatory |mandatory |mandatory |
|No expedited data transfer|mandatory |mandatory |mandatory |
| | | | |
|--------------------------|----------|----------|-----------|
|Flow control in Class 2 |mandatory |NA |NA |
|No flow control in Class 2|optional |NA |NA |
| | | | |
|--------------------------|----------|----------|-----------|
|Normal formats |mandatory |mandatory |mandatory |
|Extended formats |optional |optional |optional |
| | | | |
|--------------------------|----------|----------|-----------|
|Use of receipt confirma- | | | |
|tion in Class 1 |NA |NA |NA |
|No use of receipt con- | | | |
|firmation in Class 1 |NA |NA |NA |
| | | | |
|--------------------------|----------|----------|-----------|
|Use of network expedited | | | |
|in Class 1 |NA |NA |NA |
|No use of network expedi- | | | |
|ted in Class 1 |NA |NA |NA |
| | | | |
+------------------------------------------------------------+

NA indicates the procedure is not applicable
Table 9. (Second of 2 pages) Provision of options











149











ANNEX A - STATE TABLES


This annex is an integral part of the body of this International
Standard.

This Annex provides a more precise description of the protocol.
In the event of a discrepancy between the description in these
tables and that contained in the text, the text takes precedence.

The state table also define the mapping between service and
protocol events that TS-users can expect.

This annex describes the transport protocol in terms of state
tables. The state tables show the state of a transport
connection, the events that occur in the protocol, the actions
taken and the resultant state.

[The state tables have been omitted from this copy.]



























150











ANNEX B - CHECKSUM ALGORITHMS

(This annex is provided for information for implementors and is
not an integral part of the body of the standard.)



B.1 SYMBOLS

The following symbols are used:

C0 variables used in the algorithms
C1

i number (i.e. position) of an octet within the TPDU (see
12.1)

n number (i.e. position) of the first octet of the checksum
parameter

L length of the complete TPDU

X value of the first octet of the checksum parameter

Y value of the second octet of the checksum parameter.



B.2 ARITHMETIC CONVENTIONS

Addition is performed in one of the two following modes:

a) modulo 255 arithmetic;

b) one's complement arithmetic in which if any of the
variables has the value minus zero (i.e. 255) it shall be
regarded as though it was plus zero (i.e. 0).



B.3 ALGORITHM FOR GENERATING CHECKSUM PARAMETERS





151











B.3.1 Set up the complete TPDU with the value of the checksum
parameter field set to zero.


B.3.2 Initialize C0 and C1 to zero.



B.3.3 Process each octet sequentially from i = 1 to L by:

a) adding the value of the octet to C0; then

b) adding the value of C0 to C1.



B.3.4 Calculate X and Y such that

X = -C1 + (L-n).CO
Y = C1 - (L-n+1).C0



B.3.5 Place the values X and Y in octets n and (n + 1)
respectively.

[A Note describing the above algorithm in mathematical notation
has been omitted from this copy.]



B.4 ALGORITHM FOR CHECKING CHECKSUM PARAMETERS


B.4.1 Initialize C0 and C1 to zero.


B.4.2 Process each octet of the TPDU sequentially from i = 1 to
L by:

a) adding the value of the octet to C0; then

b) adding the value of C0 to C1.



152











B.4.3 If, when all the octets have been processed, either or
both of C0 and C1 does not have the value zero, the checksum
formulas in 6.17 have not been satisfied.

NOTE - The nature of the algorithm is such that it is not
necessary to compare explicitly the stored checksum bytes.








































153











Explanatory Report

The Transport Layer Services and Protocols have been under study
within TC97/SC16 since 1979. It was agreed by SC16 at its
meeting in Berlin, November 1980, that the Service and Protocol
documents would be progressed concurrently.

At the SC16 meeting in Tokyo, June 1982, authorization was given
(Resolutions 10 and 11, SC16 N 1233) to register both the
Transport Service Definition and the Transport Protocol
Specification as Draft Proposals and to circulate them for a 90-
day ballot.

Following the close of the letter ballot an Editing Group was
convened to integrate editorial comments and make recommendations
regarding proposed technical changes. The revised texts and
proposed recommendations were reviewed by SC16/WG6 at its meeting
in Vienna, March 1983. The revised text of the Transport Service
Definition (SC16 N 1435) was accepted as presented whereas the
revised text of the Transport Protocol (SC16 N 1433) was
subjected to an additional 60-day ballot. Consistent with the
SC16 decision regarding the parallel progression of both DPs, the
Transport Service Definition was held in abeyance pending
acceptance by SC16 of the revised Transport Protocol (Second DP
8073).

A second Editing Group was convened in Paris, July 1983, to
review comments submitted on Second DP 8073. The Minutes and
Report of this meeting are documented in SC16 N1575 and N 1574
respectively. The two negative votes (DIN and NNI) were given
full consideration. The NNI concerns have been fully covered in
the revised text prepared by the Editing Group. The DIN concerns
have been taken into account and incorporated in their large
majority.

Upon the recommendation of the Editing Group, DP 8072 and DP 8073
are forwarded for registration as Draft International Standards
and letter ballot of ISO Member Bodies.








154






Site Hosted By Digital Environments, Inc. This Website was Created with DE-Web Version 1.9.7.4,
The Fast, Web Based - Website Design Tool, Groupware and Web Hosting System by Digital Environments, Inc.
Groupware:Project Management, Sales Tracking, Web Site Design and News / Blogger all in one package.