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LinuxDig.com Request For Comments

RFC Number : 2156

Title : MIXER (Mime Internet X.






Network Working Group S. Kille
Request for Comments: 2156 Isode Ltd.
Obsoletes: 987, 1026, 1138, 1148, 1327, 1495 January 1998
Updates: 822
Category: Standards Track


MIXER (Mime Internet X.400 Enhanced Relay):
Mapping between X.400 and RFC 822/MIME

Status of this Memo

This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the 'Internet
Official Protocol Standards' (STD 1) for the standardization state
and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). All Rights Reserved.

Table of Contents

1 - Overview ...................................... 3
1.1 - X.400 ......................................... 3
1.2 - RFC 822 and MIME .............................. 3
1.3 - The need for conversion ....................... 4
1.4 - General approach .............................. 4
1.5 - Gatewaying Model .............................. 5
1.6 - Support of X.400 (1984) ....................... 8
1.7 - X.400 (1992) .................................. 8
1.8 - MIME .......................................... 8
1.9 - Body Parts .................................... 8
1.10 - Local and Global Scenarios .................... 9
1.11 - Compatibility with previous versions .......... 10
1.12 - Aspects not covered ........................... 10
1.13 - Subsetting .................................... 11
1.14 - Specification Language ........................ 11
1.15 - Related Specifications ........................ 11
1.16 - Document Structure ............................ 12
1.17 - Acknowledgements .............................. 12
2 - Service Elements .............................. 13
2.1 - The Notion of Service Across a Gateway ........ 13
2.2 - RFC 822 ....................................... 15
2.3 - X.400 ......................................... 18
3 - Basic Mappings ................................ 27
3.1 - Notation ...................................... 27



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3.2 - ASCII and IA5 ................................. 29
3.3 - Standard Types ................................ 29
3.4 - Encoding ASCII in Printable String ............ 33
3.5 - RFC 1522 ...................................... 34
4 - Addressing and Message IDs .................... 35
4.1 - A textual representation of MTS.ORAddress ..... 36
4.2 - Global Address Mapping ........................ 43
4.3 - EBNF.822-address <-> MTS.ORAddress ............ 46
4.4 - Repeated Mappings ............................. 59
4.5 - Directory Names ............................... 62
4.6 - MTS Mappings .................................. 62
4.7 - IPMS Mappings ................................. 67
5 - Detailed Mappings ............................. 71
5.1 - RFC 822 -> X.400: Detailed Mappings ........... 71
5.2 - Return of Contents ............................ 86
5.3 - X.400 -> RFC 822: Detailed Mappings ........... 86
Appendix A - Mappings Specific to SMTP ..................... 114
1 - Probes ........................................ 114
2 - Long Lines .................................... 114
3 - SMTP Extensions ............................... 114
3.1 - SMTP Extension mapping to X.400 ............... 114
3.2 - X.400 Mapping to SMTP Extensions .............. 115
Appendix B - Mapping with X.400(1984) ...................... 116
Appendix C - RFC 822 Extensions for X.400 access ........... 118
Appendix D - Object Identifier Assignment .................. 119
Appendix E - BNF Summary ................................... 120
Appendix F - Text format for MCGAM distribution ............ 127
1 - Text Formats .................................. 127
2 - Mechanisms to register and to distribute
MCGAMs ........................................ 127
3 - Syntax Definitions ............................ 128
4 - Table Lookups ................................. 129
5 - Domain -> OR Address MCGAM format ............. 129
6 - OR Address -> Domain MCGAM format ............. 129
7 - Domain -> OR Address of Preferred Gateway
table ......................................... 130
8 - OR Addresss -> domain of Preferred Gateway
table ......................................... 130
Appendix G - Conformance ................................... 131
Appendix H - Change History: RFC 987, 1026, 1138, 1148
............................................... 133
1 - Introduction .................................. 133
2 - Service Elements .............................. 133
3 - Basic Mappings ................................ 133
4 - Addressing .................................... 134
5 - Detailed Mappings ............................. 134
6 - Appendices .................................... 134
Appendix I - Change History: RFC 1148 to RFC 1327 .......... 135



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1 - General ....................................... 135
2 - Basic Mappings ................................ 135
3 - Addressing .................................... 135
4 - Detailed Mappings ............................. 135
5 - Appendices .................................... 136
Appendix J - Change History: RFC 1327 to this Document
............................................... 137
1 - General ....................................... 137
2 - Service Elements .............................. 137
3 - Basic Mappings ................................ 137
4 - Addressing .................................... 137
5 - Detailed Mappings ............................. 138
6 - Appendices .................................... 138
Appendix L - ASN.1 Summary ................................. 139
Security Considerations .................................... 141
Author's Address ........................................... 141
References ................................................. 141
Full Copyright Statement ................................... 144

Chapter 1 -- Overview

1.1. X.400

This document relates primarily to the ITU-T 1988 and 1992 X.400
Series Recommendations / ISO IEC 10021 International Standard. This
ISO/ITU-T standard is referred to in this document as 'X.400', which
is a convenient shorthand. Any reference to the 1984 Recommendations
will be explicit. Any mappings relating to elements which are in the
1992 version and not in the 1988 version will be noted explicitly.
X.400 defines an Interpersonal Messaging System (IPMS), making use of
a store and forward Message Transfer System. This document relates
to the IPMS, and not to wider application of X.400, such as EDI as
defined in X.435.

1.2. RFC 822 and MIME

RFC 822 evolved as a messaging standard on the DARPA (the US Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency) Internet. RFC 822 specifies an
end to end message format, consisting of a header and an unstructured
text body. MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) specifies a
structured message body format for use with RFC 822. The term 'RFC
822' is used in this document to refer to the combination of MIME and
RFC 822. RFC 822 and MIME are used in conjunction with a number of
different message transfer protocol environments. The core of the
MIXER specification is designed to work with any supporting message
transfer protocol.





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One transfer protocol, SMTP, is of particular importance and is
covered in MIXER. On the Internet and other TCP/IP networks, RFC 822
is used in conjunction with RFC 821, also known as Simple Mail

Transfer Protocol (SMTP) [30], in a manner conformant with the host
requirements specification [10]. Use of MIXER with SMTP is defined
in Appendix A.

1.3. The need for conversion

There is a large community using RFC 822 based protocols for mail
services, who will wish to communicate with users of the IPMS
provided by X.400 systems. This will also be a requirement in cases
where communities intend to make a transition between the different
technologies, as conversion will be needed to ensure a smooth service
transition. It is expected that there will be more than one gateway,
and this specification will enable them to behave in a consistent
manner. Note that the term gateway is used to describe a component
performing the mapping between RFC 822 and X.400. This is standard
usage amongst mail implementors, but differs from that used by
transport and network service implementors.

Consistency between gateways is desirable to provide:

1. Consistent service to users.

2. The best service in cases where a message passes through
multiple gateways.

1.4. General approach

There are a number of basic principles underlying the details of the
specification. These principles are goals, and are not achieved in
all aspects of the specification.

1. The specification should be pragmatic. There should not be
a requirement for complex mappings for 'Academic' reasons.
Complex mappings should not be required to support trivial
additional functionality.

2. Subject to 1), functionality across a gateway should be as
high as possible.

3. It is always a bad idea to lose information as a result of
any transformation. Hence, it is a bad idea for a gateway
to discard information in the objects it processes. This
includes requested services which cannot be fully mapped.




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4. Mail gateways operate at a level above the layer on which
they perform mappings. This implies that the gateway shall
not only be cognisant of the semantics of objects at the
gateway level, but also be cognisant of higher level
semantics. If meaningful transformation of the objects that
the gateway operates on is to occur, then the gateway needs
to understand more than the objects themselves.

5. Subject to 1), the mapping should be reversible. That is, a
double transformation should bring you back to where you
started.

1.5. Gatewaying Model

1.5.1. X.400

X.400 defines the IPMS Abstract Service in X.420 , [11] which
comprises of three basic services:

1. Origination

2. Reception

3. Management

Management is a local interaction between the user and the IPMS, and
is therefore not relevant to gatewaying. The first two services
consist of operations to originate and receive the following two
objects:

1. IPM (Interpersonal Message). This has two components: a
heading, and a body. The body is structured as a sequence
of body parts, which may be basic components (e.g., IA5
text, or G3 fax), or forwarded Interpersonal Messages. The
heading consists of fields containing end to end user
information, such as subject, primary recipients (To:), and
importance.

2. IPN (Inter Personal Notification). A notification about
receipt of a given IPM at the UA level.

The Origination service also allows for origination of a probe, which
is an object to test whether a given IPM could be correctly received.

The Reception service also allows for receipt of Delivery Reports
(DR), which indicate delivery success or failure.





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These IPMS Services utilise the Message Transfer System (MTS)
Abstract Service [12]. The MTS Abstract Service provides the
following three basic services:

1. Submission (used by IPMS Origination)

2. Delivery (used by IPMS Reception)

3. Administration (used by IPMS Management)

Administration is a local issue, and so does not affect this
standard. Submission and delivery relate primarily to the MTS
Message (comprising Envelope and Content), which carries an IPM or
IPN (or other uninterpreted contents). The Envelope includes a
message identifier, an originator, and a list of recipients.
Submission also includes the probe service, which supports the MTS
Probe. Delivery also includes Reports, which indicate whether a given
MTS Message has been delivered or not (or for a probe if delivery
would have happened).

The MTS is provided by MTAs which interact using the MTA (Message
Transfer Agent) Service, which defines the interaction between MTAs,
along with the procedures for distributed operation. This service
provides for transfer of MTS Messages, Probes, and Reports.

1.5.2. RFC 822

RFC 822 is based on the assumption that there is an underlying
service, which is here called the 822-MTS service. The 822-MTS
service provides three basic functions:

1. Identification of a list of recipients.

2. Identification of an error return address.

3. Transfer of an RFC 822 message.

It is possible to achieve 2) within the RFC 822 header.

This specification will be used most commonly with SMTP as the 822-
MTS service. The core MIXER specification is written so that it does
not rely on non-basic 822-MTS services. Use of non-basic SMTP
services is described in Appendix A. The core of this document is
written using SMTP terminology for 822-MTS services.

An RFC 822 message consists of a header, and content which is
uninterpreted ASCII text. The header is divided into fields, which
are the protocol elements. Most of these fields are analogous to IPM



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heading fields, although some are analogous to MTS Service Elements
or MTA Service Elements.

RFC 822 supports delivery status notifications by use of the NOTARY
mechanisms [28].

1.5.3. The Gateway

Given this functional description of the two services, the functional
nature of a gateway can now be considered. It would be elegant to
consider the SMTP (822-MTS) service mapping onto the MTS Service
Elements and RFC 822 mapping onto an IPM, but there is a not a clear
match between these services. Another elegant approach would be to
treat this document as the definition of an X.400 Access Unit (AU).
In this case, the abstraction level is too high, and some necessary
mapping function is lost. It is necessary to consider that the IPM
format definition, the IPMS Service Elements, the MTS Service
Elements, and MTA Service Elements on one side are mapped into RFC
822 + SMTP on the other in a slightly tangled manner. The details of
the tangle will be made clear in Chapter 5. Access to the MTA
Service Elements is minimised.

The following basic mappings are thus defined. When going from RFC
822 to X.400, an RFC 822 message and the associated SMTP information
is always mapped into an IPM (MTA, MTS, and IPMS Services) and a
Delivery Status Notification is mapped onto a Report. Going from
X.400 to RFC 822, an RFC 822 message and the associated SMTP
information may be derived from:

1. An IPN (MTA, MTS, and IPMS services)

2. An IPM (MTA, MTS, and IPMS services)

A Report (MTA, and MTS Services) is mapped onto a delivery status
notification.

Probes (MTA Service) shall be processed by the gateway, as discussed
in Chapter 5. MTS Messages containing Content Types other than those
defined by the IPMS are not mapped by the gateway, and shall be
rejected at the gateway if no other gatewaying procedure is defined.

This specification is concerned with X.400 IPMS. Future
specifications may defined mappings for other X.400 content types.








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1.5.4. Repeated Mappings

The primary goal of this specification is to support single mappings,
so that X.400 and RFC 822 users can communicate with maximum
functionality.

The mappings specified here are designed to work where a message
traverses multiple times between X.400 and RFC 822. This is often
essential, particularly in the case of distribution lists. However,
in general, this will lead to a level of service which is the lowest
common denominator (approximately the services offered by RFC 822).

Some RFC 822 networks may wish to use X.400 as an interconnection
mechanism (typically for policy reasons), and this is fully
supported.

Where an X.400 message transfers to RFC 822 and then back to X.400,
there is no expectation of X.400 services which do not have an
equivalent service in standard RFC 822 being preserved - although
this may be possible in some cases.

1.6. Support of X.400 (1984)

The MIXER definition is based on the initial specification of RFC 987
and in its addendum RFC 1026, which defined a mapping between
X.400(1984) and RFC 822. The core MIXER mapping is defined using the
full 1988 version of X.400, and not to a 1984 compatible subset. New
features of X.400(1988) can be used to provide a much cleaner mapping
than that defined in RFC 987. To interwork with 1984 systems,
Appendix B shall be followed.

If a message is being transferred to an X.400(1984) system by way of
X.400(1988) MTA it will give a slightly better service to follow the
rules of Appendix B, than to downgrade without this knowledge.
Downgrading specifications which supplement those specified in X.400
(X.419) are given in RFC 1328 [22] and RFC 1496 (HARPOON) [5].

1.7. X.400 (1992)

X.400 (1992) features are not used by the core of this mapping, and
so there is not an equivalent downgrade problem.

1.8. MIME

MIME format messages are generated by this mapping. As MIME messages
are fully RFC 822 compliant, this will not cause problems with
systems which are not MIME capable.




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1.9. Body Parts

MIME and X.400 IPMS can both carry arbitrary body parts. MIME defines
a mechanism for adding new body parts, and new body parts are
registered with the IANA. X.400 defines a mechanism adding new body
parts, usually referred to as Body Part 15. Extensions are defined
by Object Identifiers, so there is no requirement for a central body
part registration authority. The Electronic Messaging Association
(EMA) maintains a list of some commonly used body parts. The EMA has
specified a mechanism to use the File Transfer Body Part (FTBP) as a
more generic means to support message attachments. This approach is
gaining widespread commercial support.

The mapping between X.400 and MIME body parts is defined in the
companion MIXER specification, referenced here as RFC 2157 [8]. This
document is an update of RFC 1494 [6].

Editor's Note:
References to 2157 will be resolved as these two
documents are expected to progress in parallel.

These two specifications together form the complete MIXER Mapping.

1.10. Local and Global Scenarios

There are two basic scenarios for X.400/MIME interworking:

Global Scenario

There are two global mail networks (Internet/MIME and X.400),
interconnected by multiple gateways. Objects may be transferred
over multiple gateways, and so it is important that gateways
behave in a coherent fashion. MIXER is critical to support this
scenario.

Local Scenario

A gateway is used to connect a closed community to a global mail
network (this could be enforced by connectivity or gateway
authorisation policy). This is a common commercial scenario.
MIXER is useful to support this scenario, as it allows an industry
standard provision of service, but this could be supported by
something which was MIXER-like.

A solution for the global scenario will work for the local scenario.
However, there are aspects of MIXER which have significant
implementation or deployment effort (the global mapping is the major
one, but there are other details too) which and are needed to support



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the global scenario, but are not needed in the local scenario.

Note that the local scenario may be the driving force for most
deployments, and support of the global scenario may be an important
secondary goal.

There is also a transition effect. Gateways which are initially
deployed in a strict local scenario situation start to find
themselves in a global scenario. A common case is ADMD provided
gateways, which are targeted strictly at the local scenario. In
practice they soon start to operate in the global scenario, because
of distribution lists and messages exchanged with X.400 users that
are not customers of the ADMD. At this point, users are hurt by the
restrictions of a local scenario gateway.

Note that conformance to MIXER applies to an instantiation of a
gateway, not just an implementation (although clearly it is critical
that the implementation is capable of being operated in a conformant
manner).

MIXER's conformance target is the global scenario, and the
specification of MIXER defines operation in this way.

1.11. Compatibility with previous versions

The changes between this and older versions of the document are given
in Appendices H, I and J. These are RFCs 987, 1026, 1138, 1148 and
1327. This document is a revision of RFC 1327 [21]. As far as
possible, changes have been made in a compatible fashion.

1.12. Aspects not covered

There have been a number of cases where previous versions of this
document were used in a manner which was not intended. This section
is to make clear some limitations of scope. In particular, this
specification does not specify:

- Extensions of RFC 822 to provide access to all X.400
services

- X.400 user interface definition

These are really coupled. To map the X.400 services, this
specification defines a number of extensions to RFC 822. As a side
effect, these give the 822 user access to SOME X.400 services.
However, the aim on the RFC 822 side is to preserve current service,
and it is intentional that access is not given to all X.400 services.
Thus, it will be a poor choice for X.400 implementors to use MIXER as



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an interface - there are too many aspects of X.400 which cannot be
accessed through it. If a text interface is desired, a specification
targeted at X.400, without RFC 822 restrictions, would be more
appropriate. Some optional and limited extensions in this area have
proved useful, and are defined in Appendix C.

1.13. Subsetting

This proposal specifies a mapping which is appropriate to preserve
services in existing RFC 822 communities. Implementations and
specifications which subset this specification are non-conformant and
strongly discouraged.

1.14. Specification Language

ISO and Internet standards have clear definitions as to the style of
language used. This specification maps between ISO/ITU-T protocol
and Internet protocols. This document uses ISO terminology for the
following reasons:

1. This was done in previous versions.

2. ISO language may be mechanically converted to Internet
language, but not vice versa.

The key elements of the ISO rules are:

1. All mandatory features shall clearly be indicated by
imperative statements or the word 'shall' or 'shall not'.

2. Optional features shall be indicated by the word 'may'.

3. The word 'should' and the phrase 'may not' shall not be
used.

In some cases the specification issues guidance on use of optional
features, by use of the the phrase word 'recommended' or 'not
recommended'.

To interpet this document according to Internet rules, replace every
occurrence of 'shall' with 'must'.

1.15. Related Specifications

Mappings between Mail-11 and X.400 and Mail-11 and RFC 822 are
described in RFC 2162, using mappings related to those defined here
[2].




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1.16. Document Structure

This document has five chapters:

1. Overview - this chapter.

2. Service Elements - This describes the (end user) services
mapped by a gateway.

3. Basic mappings - This describes some basic notation used in
Chapters 3-5, the mappings between character sets, and some
fundamental protocol elements.

4. Addressing - This considers the mapping between X.400 OR
names and RFC 822 addresses, which is a fundamental gateway
component.

5. Detailed Mappings - This describes the details of all other
mappings.

There are also ten appendices.

WARNING:

THE REMAINDER OF THIS SPECIFICATION IS TECHNICALLY DETAILED. IT
WILL NOT MAKE SENSE, EXCEPT IN THE CONTEXT OF RFC 822 AND X.400
(1988). DO NOT ATTEMPT TO READ THIS DOCUMENT UNLESS YOU ARE
FAMILIAR WITH THESE SPECIFICATIONS.

1.17. Acknowledgements

The work in this specification was substantially based on RFC 987 and
RFC 1148, which had input from many people, who are credited in the
respective documents.

A number of comments from people on RFC 1148 lead to RFC 1327. In
particular, there were comments and suggestions from: Maurice Abraham
(HP); Harald Alvestrand (Sintef); Peter Cowen (X-Tel); Jim Craigie
(JNT); Ella Gardner (MITRE); Christian Huitema (Inria); Erik Huizer
(SURFnet); Neil Jones (DEC); Ignacio Martinez (IRIS); Julian Onions
(X-Tel); Simon Poole (SWITCH); Clive Roberts (Data General); Pete
Vanderbilt (SUN); Alan Young (Concurrent).

RFC 1327 has been widely adopted, and a review team was formed. This
comprised of: Urs Eppenberger (SWITCH)(Chair); Claudio Allocchio
(INFN); Harald Alvestrand (UNINETT); Dave Crocker (Brandenburg); Ned
Freed (Innosoft); Erik Huizer (SURFnet); Steve Kille (Isode); Peter
Sylvester (GC Tech).



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Harald Alvestrand also supplied the tables mapping DSN status codes
with X.400 codes. Ned Freed defined parts of the File Transfer Body
Part mapping.

Comment and input has also been received from: Bengt Ackzell (Generic
Systems); Samir Albadine (Transpac); Mark Boyes (DEC); Larry Campbell
(Boston Software Works); Jacqui Caren (Cray); Allan Cargille (MCI);
Kevin Carrosso (Innosoft); Charlie Combs (OIW); Jim Craigie (Net-
Tel); Eamon Doyle (Isocor); Efifion Edem (SITA); Jyrki Heikkinen
(ICL); Edward Hibbert (DCL); Jeroun Houttin (Terena); Kevin Jordan
(CDS); Paul Kingsnorth (DEC); Carl-Uno Manros (Manros Consulting);
Suzan Mendes (Telis); Robert Miles (Softswitch); Roger Mizumorri
(Enterprise Solutions Ltd); Keith Moore (University of Tennessee);
Ruth Moulton (Net-Tel) Michel Musy (Bull); Kenji Nonaka (NTT): The
OIW MHSIG; Tom Oliphant (SWITCH); Julian Onions (NEXOR); Jacob Palme
(KTH); Olivier Paridaens (ULB); Mary la Roche (Citicorp); John
Setsaas (Maxware); Russell Sharpe (DCL); Patrick Soulier (CCETT);
Eftimios Tsigros (Universite Libre de Bruxelles); Sean Turner (IECA);
Mark Wahl (Isode); David Wilson (Isode); Bill Wohler (Worldtalk);
Alan Young (Isode); Alain Zahm (Telis).

Chapter 2 - Service Elements

This chapter considers the services offered across a gateway built
according to this specification. It gives a view of the
functionality provided by such a gateway for communication with users
in the opposite domain. This chapter considers service mappings in
the context of SINGLE transfers only, and not repeated mappings
through multiple gateways.

2.1. The Notion of Service Across a Gateway

RFC 822 and X.400 provide a number of services to the end user. This
chapter describes the extent to which each service can be supported
across an X.400 <-> RFC 822 gateway. The cases considered are single
transfers across such a gateway, although the problems of multiple
crossings are noted where appropriate.

2.1.1. Origination of Messages

When a user originates a message, a number of services are available.
Some of these imply actions (e.g., delivery to a recipient), and some
are insertion of known data (e.g., specification of a subject field).
This chapter describes, for each offered service, to what extent it
is supported for a recipient accessed through a gateway. There are
three levels of support:





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Supported
The corresponding protocol elements map well, and so the service
can be fully provided.

Not Supported
The service cannot be provided, as there is a complete mismatch.

Partial Support
The service can be partially fulfilled.

In the first two cases, the service is simply marked as 'Supported'
or 'Not Supported'. Some explanation may be given if there are
additional implications, or the (non) support is not intuitive. For
partial support, the level of partial support is summarised. Where
partial support is good, this will be described by a phrase such as
'Supported by use of.....'. A common case of this is where the
service is mapped onto a non-standard service on the other side of
the gateway, and this would have lead to support if it had been a
standard service. In many cases, this is equivalent to support. For
partial support, an indication of the mechanism is given, in order to
give a feel for the level of support provided. Note that this is not
a replacement for Chapter 5, where the mapping is fully specified.

If a service is described as supported, this implies:

- Semantic correspondence.

- No (significant) loss of information.

- Any actions required by the service element.

An example of a service gaining full support: If an RFC 822
originator specifies a Subject: field, this is considered to be
supported, as an X.400 recipient will get a subject indication.

In many cases, the required action will simply be to make the
information available to the end user. In other cases, actions may
imply generating a delivery report.

All RFC 822 services are supported or partially supported for
origination. The implications of non-supported X.400 services is
described under X.400.

2.1.2. Reception of Messages

For reception, the list of service elements required to support this
mapping is specified. This is really an indication of what a
recipient might expect to see in a message which has been remotely



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originated.

2.2. RFC 822

RFC 822 does not explicitly define service elements, as distinct from
protocol elements. However, all of the RFC 822 header fields, with
the exception of trace, can be regarded as corresponding to implicit
RFC 822 service elements.

2.2.1. Origination in RFC 822

A mechanism of mapping, used in several cases, is to map the RFC 822
header into a heading extension in the IPM (InterPersonal Message).
This can be regarded as partial support, as it makes the information
available to any X.400 implementations which are interested in these
services. Communities which require significant RFC 822 interworking
are recommended to require that their X.400 User Agents are able to
display these heading extensions. Support for the various service
elements (headers) is now listed.

Date:
Supported.

From:
Supported. For messages where there is also a sender field,
the mapping is to 'Authorising Users Indication', which has
subtly different semantics to the general RFC 822 usage of
From:.

Sender: Supported.

Reply-To: Supported.

To: Supported.

Cc: Supported.

Bcc: Supported.

Message-Id: Supported.

In-Reply-To:
Supported, for a single reference. Where multiple references are
given, partial support is given by mapping to 'Cross Referencing
Indication'. This gives similar semantics.

References: Supported.




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Keywords: Supported by use of a heading extension.

Subject: Supported.

Comments: Supported by use of a heading extension.

Encrypted: Supported by use of a heading extension.

Content-Language: Supported.

Resent-*

Supported by use of a heading extension. Note that addresses in
these fields are mapped onto text, and so are not accessible to
the X.400 user as addresses. In principle, fuller support would
be possible by mapping onto a forwarded IP Message, but this is
not suggested.

Other Fields

In particular X-* fields, and 'illegal' fields in common usage
(e.g., 'Fruit-of-the-day:') are supported by use of heading
extensions.

MIME introduces a number of headings. Support is defined in RFC
2157.

2.2.2. Reception by RFC 822

This considers reception by an RFC 822 User Agent of a message
originated in an X.400 system and transferred across a gateway. The
following standard services (headers) may be present in such a
message:

Date:

From:

Sender:

Reply-To:

To:

Cc:

Bcc:




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Message-Id:

In-Reply-To:

References:

Subject:

Content-Type: (See RFC 2157)

Content-Transfer-Encoding: (See RFC 2157)

MIME-Version: (See RFC 2157)

The following services (headers) may be present in the header of a
message. These are defined in more detail in Chapter 5 (5.3.4, 5.3.6,
5.3.7):

Autoforwarded:

Autosubmitted:

X400-Content-Identifier:

Content-Language:

Conversion:

Conversion-With-Loss:

Delivery-Date:

Discarded-X400-IPMS-Extensions:

Discarded-X400-MTS-Extensions:

DL-Expansion-History:

Deferred-Delivery:

Expires:

Importance:

Incomplete-Copy:

Latest-Delivery-Time:




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Message-Type:

Original-Encoded-Information-Types:

Originator-Return-Address:

Priority:

Reply-By:

Sensitivity:

Supersedes:

X400-Content-Type:

X400-MTS-Identifier:

X400-Originator:

X400-Received:

X400-Recipients:

2.3. X.400

2.3.1. Origination in X.400

When mapping services from X.400 to RFC 822 which are not supported
by RFC 822, new RFC 822 headers are defined, and registered by
publication in this standard. It is intended that co-operating RFC
822 systems may also use them. Where these new fields are used, and
no system action is implied, the service can be regarded as being
partially supported. Chapter 5 describes how to map X.400 services
onto these new headers. Other elements are provided, in part, by the
gateway as they cannot be provided by RFC 822.

Some service elements are marked N/A (not applicable). There are
five cases, which are marked with different comments:

N/A (local)
These elements are only applicable to User Agent / Message
Transfer Agent interaction and so they cannot apply to RFC 822
recipients.







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N/A (PDAU)
These service elements are only applicable where the recipient is
reached by use of a Physical Delivery Access Unit (PDAU), and so
do not need to be mapped by the gateway.

N/A (reception)
These services are only applicable for reception.

N/A (prior)
If requested, this service shall be performed prior to the
gateway.

N/A (MS)
These services are only applicable to Message Store (i.e., a local
service).

Finally, some service elements are not supported. In particular, the
new security services are not mapped onto RFC 822. Unless otherwise
indicated, the behaviour of service elements marked as not supported
will depend on the criticality marking supplied by the user. If the
element is marked as critical for transfer or delivery, a non-
delivery notification will be generated. Otherwise, the service
request will be ignored.

2.3.1.1. Basic Interpersonal Messaging Service

These are the mandatory IPM services as listed in Section 19.8 of
X.400 / ISO/IEC 10021-1, listed here in the order given. Section 19.8
has cross references to short definitions of each service.

Access management
N/A (local).

Content Type Indication
Supported by a new RFC 822 header (X400-Content-Type:).

Converted Indication
Supported by a new RFC 822 header (X400-Received:).

Delivery Time Stamp Indication
N/A (reception).

IP Message Identification
Supported.

Message Identification
Supported, by use of a new RFC 822 header (X400-MTS-Identifier).
This new header is required, as X.400 has two message-ids whereas



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RFC 822 has only one (see IP Message Identification

Non-delivery Notification
Not supported in all cases. Supported where the recipient system
supports NOTARY DSNs. In general all RFC 822 systems will return
error reports by use of IP messages. In other service elements,
this pragmatic result can be treated as effective support of this
service element.

Original Encoded Information Types Indication
Supported as a new RFC 822 header (Original-Encoded-Information-
Types:).

Submission Time Stamp Indication
Supported.

Typed Body
Support is defined in RFC 2157.

User Capabilities Registration
N/A (local).

2.3.1.2. IPM Service Optional User Facilities

This section describes support for the optional (user selectable) IPM
services as listed in Section 19.9 of X.400 / ISO/IEC 10021- 1,
listed here in the order given. Section 19.9 has cross references to
short definitions of each service.

Additional Physical Rendition
N/A (PDAU).

Alternate Recipient Allowed
Not supported. There is no RFC 822 service equivalent to
prohibition of alternate recipient assignment (e.g., an RFC 822
system may freely send an undeliverable message to a local
postmaster). A MIXER gateway has two conformant options. The
first is not to gateway a message requesting prohibition of
alternate recipient, as this control cannot be guaranteed. This
option supports the service, but may cause unacceptable level of
message rejections. The second is to gateway the message on the
basis that there is no alternate recipient service in RFC 822. RFC
1327 allowed only the second option. If the first option is
shown to be operationally effective, it may be the only option in
future versions of MIXER.

Authorising User's Indication
Supported.



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Auto-forwarded Indication
Supported as new RFC 822 header (Auto-Forwarded:).

Basic Physical Rendition
N/A (PDAU).

Blind Copy Recipient Indication
Supported.

Body Part Encryption Indication
Supported by use of a new RFC 822 header (Original-Encoded-
Information-Types:), although in most cases it will not be
possible to map the body part in question.

Content Confidentiality
Not supported.

Content Integrity
Not supported.

Conversion Prohibition
Supported. Operation defined in RFC 2157.

Conversion Prohibition in Case of Loss of Information
Supported. Operation defined in RFC 2157.

Counter Collection
N/A (PDAU).

Counter Collection with Advice
N/A (PDAU).

Cross Referencing Indication
Supported.

Deferred Delivery
N/A (prior). This service shall always be provided by the MTS
prior to the gateway. A new RFC 822 header (Deferred-Delivery:)
is provided to transfer information on this service to the
recipient.

Deferred Delivery Cancellation
N/A (local).

Delivery Notification
Supported. This is performed at the gateway, but may be performed
at the end system if the end system supports NOTARY. Thus, a
notification is sent by the gateway to the originator.



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Delivery via Bureaufax Service
N/A (PDAU).

Designation of Recipient by Directory Name
N/A (local).

Disclosure of Other Recipients
Supported by use of a new RFC 822 header (X400-Recipients:). This
is descriptive information for the RFC 822 recipient, and is not
reverse mappable.

DL Expansion History Indication
Supported by use of a new RFC 822 header (DL-Expansion-History:).

DL Expansion Prohibited
Distribution List means MTS supported distribution list, in the
manner of X.400. This service does not exist in the RFC 822
world, although RFC 822 supports distribution list functionality.
There is no SMTP leve control to prohibit distribution list
expansion. A MIXER gateway has two conformant options. The
first is not to gateway a message requesting DL expansion
prohibition, as this control cannot be guaranteed. This option
supports the service, but may cause unacceptable level of message
rejections. The second is to gateway the message on the basis that
there is no distribution list service in RFC 822. RFC 1327 allowed
only the second option. If the first option is shown to be
operationally effective, it may be the only option in future
versions of MIXER.

Express Mail Service
N/A (PDAU).

Expiry Date Indication
Supported as new RFC 822 header (Expires:). In general, no
automatic action can be expected.

Explicit Conversion
N/A (prior).

Forwarded IP Message Indication
Supported.

Grade of Delivery Selection
Not Supported. There is no equivalent service in RFC 822.

Importance Indication
Supported as new RFC 822 header (Importance:).




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Incomplete Copy Indication
Supported as new RFC 822 header (Incomplete-Copy:).

Language Indication
Supported as new RFC 822 header (Content-Language:).

Latest Delivery Designation
Not supported. A new RFC 822 header (Latest-Delivery-Time:) is
provided, which may be used by the recipient for general
information, but will not be acted on by the SMTP infrastrucuture.

Message Flow Confidentiality
Not supported.

Message Origin Authentication
N/A (reception).

Message Security Labelling
Not supported.

Message Sequence Integrity
Not supported.

Multi-Destination Delivery Supported.

Multi-part Body
Supported.

Non Receipt Notification Request
Not supported.

Non Repudiation of Delivery
Not supported.

Non Repudiation of Origin
N/A (reception).

Non Repudiation of Submission
N/A (local).

Obsoleting Indication
Supported as new RFC 822 header (Supersedes:).

Ordinary Mail
N/A (PDAU).

Originator Indication
Supported.



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Originator Requested Alternate Recipient
Not supported, but is placed as comment next to address (X400-
Recipients:).

Physical Delivery Notification by MHS
N/A (PDAU).

Physical Delivery Notification by PDS
N/A (PDAU).

Physical Forwarding Allowed
Supported by use of a comment in a new RFC 822 header (X400-
Recipients:), associated with the recipient in question.

Physical Forwarding Prohibited
Supported by use of a comment in a new RFC 822 header (X400-
Recipients:), associated with the recipient in question.

Prevention of Non-delivery notification
Supported where SMTP and NOTARY are available. In other cases
formally supported, as delivery notifications cannot be generated
by RFC 822. In practice, errors will be returned as IP Messages,
and so this service may appear not to be supported (see Non-
delivery Notification).

Primary and Copy Recipients Indication
Supported

Probe
Supported at the gateway (i.e., the gateway services the probe).

Probe Origin Authentication
N/A (reception).

Proof of Delivery
Not supported.

Proof of Submission
N/A (local).

Receipt Notification Request Indication
Not supported.









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Redirection Disallowed by Originator
Redirection means MTS supported redirection, in the manner of
X.400. This service does not exist in the RFC 822 world. RFC 822
redirection (e.g., aliasing) is regarded as an informal
redirection mechanism, beyond the scope of this control. Messages
will be sent to RFC 822, irrespective of whether this service is
requested. In practice, control of this service is not supported.

Registered Mail
N/A (PDAU).

Registered Mail to Addressee in Person
N/A (PDAU).

Reply Request Indication
Supported as comment next to address.

Replying IP Message Indication
Supported.

Report Origin Authentication
N/A (reception).

Request for Forwarding Address
N/A (PDAU).

Requested Delivery Method
N/A (local). The service request is dealt with at submission
time. Any such request is made available through the gateway by
use of a comment associated with the recipient in question.

Return of Content
Supported where SMTP and NOTARY are used. In principle for other
situations, this is N/A, as non-delivery notifications are not
supported. In practice, most RFC 822 systems will return part or
all of the content along with the IP Message indicating an error
(see Non-delivery Notification).

Sensitivity Indication
Supported as new RFC 822 header (Sensitivity:).

Special Delivery
N/A (PDAU).

Stored Message Deletion
N/A (MS).





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Stored Message Fetching
N/A (MS).

Stored Message Listing
N/A (MS).

Stored Message Summary
N/A (MS).

Subject Indication
Supported.

Undeliverable Mail with Return of Physical Message
N/A (PDAU).

Use of Distribution List
In principle this applies only to X.400 supported distribution
lists (see DL Expansion Prohibited). Theoretically, this service
is N/A (prior). In practice, because of informal RFC 822 lists,
this service can be regarded as supported.

Auto-Submitted Indication
Supported

2.3.2. Reception by X.400

2.3.2.1. Standard Mandatory Services

The following standard IPM mandatory user facilities are required for
reception of RFC 822 originated mail by an X.400 UA.

Content Type Indication

Delivery Time Stamp Indication

IP Message Identification

Message Identification

Non-delivery Notification

Original Encoded Information Types Indication

Submission Time Stamp Indication

Typed Body





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2.3.2.2. Standard Optional Services

The following standard IPM optional user facilities are required for
reception of RFC 822 originated mail by an X.400 UA.

Authorising User's Indication

Blind Copy Recipient Indication

Cross Referencing Indication

Originator Indication

Primary and Copy Recipients Indication

Replying IP Message Indication

Subject Indication

2.3.2.3. New Services

A new X.400 service 'RFC 822 Header Field' is defined using the
extension facilities. This allows for any RFC 822 header field to be
represented. It may be present in RFC 822 originated messages which
are received by an X.400 UA.

Chapter 3 Basic Mappings

3.1. Notation

The X.400 protocols are encoded in a structured manner according to
ASN.1, whereas RFC 822 is text encoded. To define a detailed
mapping, it is necessary to refer to detailed protocol elements in
each format. A notation to achieve this is described in this
section.

3.1.1. RFC 822

Structured text is defined according to the Extended Backus Naur Form
(EBNF) defined in Section 2 of RFC 822 [16]. In the EBNF definitions
used in this specification, the syntax rules given in Appendix D of
RFC 822 are assumed. When these EBNF tokens are referred to outside
an EBNF definition, they are identified by the string '822.' appended
to the beginning of the string (e.g., 822.addr-spec). Additional
syntax rules, to be used throughout this specification, are defined
in this chapter.

The EBNF is used in two ways.



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1. To describe components of RFC 822 messages (or of SMTP
components). When these new EBNF tokens are referred to
outside an EBNF definition, they are identified by the
string 'EBNF.' appended to the beginning of the string
(e.g., EBNF.importance).

2. To describe the structure of IA5 or ASCII information not in
an RFC 822 message.

For all new EBNF, tokens will either be self delimiting, or be
delimited by self delimiting tokens. Comments and LWSP are not used
as delimiters, except for the following cases, where LWSP may be
inserted according to RFC 822 rules.

- Around the ':' in all headers

- EBNF.labelled-integer

- EBNF.object-identifier

- EBNF.encoded-info

RFC 822 folding rules are applied to all headers. Comments are never
used in these new headers.

This notation is used in a modified form to refer to NOTARY EBNF
[28]. For this EBNF, the keyword EBNF it replaces with DSN, for
example DSN.final-recipient-field fields.

3.1.2. ASN.1

An element is referred to with the following syntax, defined in EBNF:

element = service '.' definition *( '.' definition )
service = 'IPMS' / 'MTS' / 'MTA'
definition = identifier / context
identifier = ALPHA *< ALPHA or DIGIT or '-' >
context = '[' 1*DIGIT ']'

The EBNF.service keys are shorthand for the following service
specifications:

IPMS IPMSInformationObjects defined in Annex E of X.420 / ISO 10021-
7.

MTS MTSAbstractService defined in Section 9 of X.411 / ISO 10021-4.

TA MTAAbstractService defined in Section 13 of X.411 / ISO 10021-4.



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FTBP File Transfer Body Part, as defined in [27].

The first EBNF.identifier identifies a type or value key in the
context of the defined service specification. Subsequent
EBNF.identifiers identify a value label or type in the context of the
first identifier (SET or SEQUENCE). EBNF.context indicates a context
tag, and is used where there is no label or type to uniquely identify
a component. The special EBNF.identifier keyword 'value' is used to
denote an element of a sequence. For example, IPMS.Heading.subject
defines the subject element of the IPMS heading. The same syntax is
also used to refer to element values. For example,
MTS.EncodedInformationTypes.[0].g3Fax refers to a value of
MTS.EncodedInformationTypes.[0] .

3.2. ASCII and IA5

A gateway will interpret all IA5 as ASCII. Thus, mapping between
these forms is conceptual.

3.3. Standard Types

There is a need to convert between ASCII text and some of the types
defined in ASN.1 [14]. For each case, an EBNF syntax definition is
given, for use in all of this specification, which leads to a mapping
between ASN.1, and an EBNF construct. All EBNF syntax definitions of
ASN.1 types are in lower case, whereas ASN.1 types are referred to
with the first letter in upper case. Except as noted, all mappings
are symmetrical.

3.3.1. Boolean

Boolean is encoded as:

boolean = 'TRUE' / 'FALSE'

3.3.2. NumericString

NumericString is encoded as:

numericstring = *(DIGIT / ' ')











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3.3.3. PrintableString

PrintableString is a restricted IA5String defined as:

printablestring = *( ps-char )
ps-restricted-char = 1DIGIT / 1ALPHA / ' ' / ''' / '+'
/ ',' / '-' / '.' / '/' / ':' / '=' / '?'
ps-delim = '(' / ')'
ps-char = ps-delim / ps-restricted-char

This can be used to represent real printable strings in EBNF.

3.3.4. T.61String

In cases where T.61 strings are only used for conveying human
interpreted information, the aim of a mapping is to render the
characters appropriately in the remote character set, rather than to
maximise reversibility. For these cases, there are two options, both
of which are conformant to this specification:

1. The mappings to IA5 defined in ITU-T Recommendation X.408
(1988) may be used [13]. These will then be encoded in
ASCII. This is the approach mandated in RFC 1327.

2. This mapping may be used if the characters are not contained
within ASCII repertoire, but are all in an IANA-registered
character set. Use the encoding defined in RFC 1522 [9] to
generate appropriate encoded-words. If this mapping is
used, the character set ISO-8859-1 shall be used if all of
the characters needed are available in this repertoire. In
other cases, the character set TELETEX shall be used. The
details of this character set is defined in the Appendix C
of RFC 2157.

There is also a need to represent Teletex Strings in ASCII, for some
aspects of OR Address. For these, the following encoding is used:

teletex-string = *( ps-char / t61-encoded )
t61-encoded = '{' 1* t61-encoded-char '}'
t61-encoded-char = 3DIGIT

Characters in EBNF.ps-char are mapped simply. Other octets,
including control characters, are mapped using a quoting mechanism
similar to the printable string mechanism. Each octet is represented
as 3 decimal digits. For example, the Yen character (hex A5) is
represented as {165}. As the three character string, a, yen
character, b, would be represented as either 'a{165}b'.




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The use of escape sequences follows that set down for ASN1. in ISO
8825-1, with the additional specifiction that the default G1 page is
ISO Latin 1. The page settings may be changed by escape sequences.
Changes of the settings hold within a pair of curly brackets ({}),
and the settings revert to the default after the right bracket (})
(i.e., they do not carry forward to subsequent T.61 encoding).

There are a number of places where a string may have a Teletex and/or
Printable String representation. The following EBNF is used to
represent this.

teletex-and-or-ps = [ printablestring ] [ '*' teletex-string ]

The natural mapping is restricted to EBNF.ps-char, in order to make
the full BNF easier to parse. An example is:

'yen*{165}'

3.3.5. UTCTime

Both UTCTime and the RFC 822 822.date-time syntax contain: Year,
Month, Day of Month, hour, minute, second (optional), and Timezone
(technically a time differential in UTCTime). 822.date-time also
contains an optional day of the week, but this is redundant. With
the exception of Year, a symmetrical mapping can be made between
these constructs.

Note:
In practice, a gateway will need to parse various illegal variants
on 822.date-time. In cases where 822.date-time cannot be parsed,
it is recommended that the derived UTCTime is set to the value at
the time of translation. Such errors may be noted in an RFC 822
comment, to aid detection and correction.

When mapping to X.400, the UTCTime format which specifies the
timezone offset shall be used.

When mapping to RFC 822, the 822.date-time format shall include a
numeric timezone offset (e.g., -0500).

When mapping time values, the timezone shall be preserved as
specified. The date shall not be normalised to any other timezone.









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RFC 822, as modified by RFC 1123, requires use of a four digit year.
Note that the original RFC 822 uses a two digit date, which is no
longer legal. UTCTime uses a two digit date. To map a year from RFC
822 to X.400, simply use the last two digits. To map a year from
X.400 to RFC 822, assume that the two digit year refers to a year in
the 10 year epoch 1980-2079.

3.3.6. Integer

A basic ASN.1 Integer will be mapped onto EBNF.numericstring. In
many cases ASN.1 will enumerate Integer values or use ENUMERATED. An
EBNF encoding labelled-integer is provided. When mapping from EBNF to
ASN.1, only the integer value is mapped, and the associated text is
discarded. When mapping from ASN.1 to EBNF, a text label may be
added. It is recommended that this is done wherever possible and
that clear text labels are chosen.

A second encoding labelled-integer-2 is provided. This is used in
DSNs, where the parsing rules will treat the text as a comment. This
definition was not present in RFC 1327.

labelled-integer ::= [ key-string ] '(' numericstring ')'

labelled-integer-2 ::= [ numericstring ] '(' key-string ')'

key-string = *key-char
key-char =


3.3.7. Object Identifier

Object identifiers are represented in a form similar to that given in
ASN.1. The order is the same as for ASN.1 (big-endian). The numbers
are mandatory, and used when mapping from the ASCII to ASN.1. The
key-strings are optional. It is recommended that as many strings as
possible are generated when mapping from ASN.1 to ASCII, to
facilitate user recognition.

object-identifier ::= oid-comp object-identifier
| oid-comp

oid-comp ::= [ key-string ] '(' numericstring ')'









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An example representation of an object identifier is:

joint-iso-ccitt(2) mhs (6) ipms (1) ep (11) ia5-text (0)

or

(2) (6) (1)(11)(0)

Because of the use of brackets and the conflict with the RFC 822
comment convention, MIXER is defines so that the EBNFobject-
identifier definition is not used in structured fields.

3.4. Encoding ASCII in Printable String

Some information in RFC 822 is represented in ASCII, and needs to be
mapped into X.400 elements encoded as printable string. For this
reason, a mechanism to represent ASCII encoded as PrintableString is
needed.

A structured subset of EBNF.printablestring is now defined. This
shall be used to encode ASCII in the PrintableString character set.

ps-encoded = *( ps-restricted-char / ps-encoded-char )
ps-encoded-char = '(a)' ; (@)
/ '(p)' ; (%)
/ '(b)' ; (!)
/ '(q)' ; (')
/ '(u)' ; (_)
/ '(l)' ; '('
/ '(r)' ; ')'
/ '(' 3DIGIT ')'

The 822.3DIGIT in EBNF.ps-encoded-char shall have range 0-127, and is
interpreted in decimal as the corresponding ASCII character. Special
encodings are given for: at sign (@), percent (%), exclamation
mark/bang (!), double quote ('), underscore (_), left bracket ((),
and right bracket ()). These characters, with the exception of round
brackets, are not included in PrintableString, but are common in RFC
822 addresses. The abbreviations will ease specification of RFC 822
addresses from an X.400 system. These special encodings shall be
interpreted in a case insensitive manner, but always generated in
lower case.

A reversible mapping between PrintableString and ASCII can now be
defined. The reversibility means that some values of printable
string (containing round braces) cannot be generated from ASCII.
Therefore, this mapping shall only be used in cases where the
printable strings have been derived from ASCII (and will therefore



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have a restricted domain). For example, in this specification, it is
only applied to a Domain Defined Attribute which will have been
generated by use of this specification and a value such as '(' would
not be possible.

To encode ASCII as PrintableString, the EBNF.ps-encoded syntax is
used, with all EBNF.ps-restricted-char mapped directly. All other
822.CHAR are encoded as EBNF.ps-encoded-char.

To encode PrintableString as ASCII, parse PrintableString as
EBNF.ps-encoded, and then reverse the previous mapping. If the
PrintableString cannot be parsed, then the mapping is being applied
in to an inappropriate value, and an error shall be given to the
procedure doing the mapping. In some cases, it may be preferable to
pass the printable string through unaltered.

Some examples are now given. Note the arrows which indicate
asymmetrical mappings:

PrintableString ASCII

'a demo.' <-> 'a demo.'
foo(a)bar <-> foo@bar
(q)(u)(p)(q) <-> '_%'
(a) <-> @
(A) -> @
(l)a(r) <-> (a)
(126) <-> ~
( -> (
(l) <-> (

3.5. RFC 1522

RFC 1522 defines a mechanism for encoding other character set
information into elements of RFC 822 Headers. A gateway may ignore
this encoding and treat the elements as ASCII.

A preferred approach is for the gateway to interpret the RFC 1522
encoding. This will not always be straightforward, because:

1. RFC 1522 permits an openly extensible character set choice,
which may be broader than T.61.

2. It is not always possible to map all characters into the
equivalent X.400 field.

RFC 1522 is only applied to fields which are 'for information only'.
A gateway which interprets header elements according to RFC 1522 may



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apply reasonable heuristics to minimise information loss.

Chapter 4 - Addressing and Message IDs

Addressing is the most complex aspect of X.400 <-> RFC 822 gateway
and is therefore given a separate chapter. This chapter also
discusses message identifiers, as they are closely linked to
addresses. This chapter, as a side effect, also defines a textual
representation of an X.400 OR Address. This specification has much
similarity to the X.400(92) representation of addresses. This was
because early versions of this specification were a major input to
this work. This specification retains compatibility with earlier
versions. The X.400 specification of address representation can be
parsed but is not generated.

Initially we consider an address in the (human) mail user sense of
'what is typed at the mailsystem to reference a mail user'. A basic
RFC 822 address is defined by the EBNF EBNF.822-address:

822-address = [ route ] addr-spec

These definitions are taken from RFC 822. In SMTP (or another 822-
MTS protocol), the originator and each recipient are considered to be
defined by such a construct. In an RFC 822 header, the EBNF.822-
address is encapsulated in the 822-address syntax rule, and there may
also be associated comments. None of this extra information has any
semantics, other than to the end user.

The basic X.400 OR Address, used by the MTS for routing, is defined
by MTS.ORAddress. In IPMS, the MTS.ORAddress is encapsulated within
IPMS.ORDescriptor.

The RFC 822 822.address is mapped with IPMS.ORDescriptor, and that
RFC 822 EBNF.822-address is mapped with MTS.ORAddress.

Section 4.1 defines a textual representation of an OR Address, which
is used throughout the rest of this specification. This text
representation is designed to represent an X.400 address in the LHS
(left hand side) or local part of an RFC 822 address, and so this
representation gives a mechanism to represent X.400 addresses within
RFC 822 addresses.

Section 4.2 describes global equivalence mapping between parts of the
X.400 and RFC 822 name spaces, and defines the concept of a MIXER
Conformant Global Address Mapping (MCGAM). Gateways conforming to
this specification shall support MCGAMs.





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Section 4.3 is the core part of this chapter, and defines the mapping
mechanism.

4.1. A textual representation of MTS.ORAddress

MTS.ORAddress is structured as an ordered set of attributes
(type/value pairs). It is clearly necessary to be able to encode
this in ASCII for gatewaying purposes. All components shall be
encoded, in order to guarantee return of error messages, and to
optimise third party replies.

4.1.1. Basic OR Address Representation

An OR Address has a number of structured and unstructured attributes.
For each unstructured attribute, a key and an encoding is specified.
For structured attributes, the X.400 attribute is mapped onto one or
more attribute value pairs. For domain defined attributes, each
element of the sequence will be mapped onto a triple (key and two
values), with each value having the same encoding. The attributes
are as follows, with 1984 attributes given in the first part of the
attribute key table. For each attribute, a reference is given,
consisting of the relevant sections in X.402 / ISO 10021-2, and the
extension identifier for 88 only attributes. The attribute key table
follows:

Attribute (Component) Key Enc Ref Id

84/88 Attributes

MTS.CountryName C P 18.3.3
MTS.AdministrationDomainName ADMD P 18.3.1
MTS.PrivateDomainName PRMD P 18.3.21
MTS.NetworkAddress X121 N 18.3.7
MTS.TerminalIdentifier T-ID P 18.3.23
MTS.OrganizationName O P/T 18.3.9
MTS.OrganizationalUnitNames.value OU P/T 18.3.10
MTS.NumericUserIdentifier UA-ID N 18.3.8
MTS.PersonalName PN P/T 18.3.12
MTS.PersonalName.surname S P/T 18.3.12
MTS.PersonalName.given-name G P/T 18.3.12
MTS.PersonalName.initials I P/T 18.3.12
MTS.PersonalName
.generation-qualifier GQ P/T 18.3.12
MTS.DomainDefineAttribute.value DD P/T 18.1







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88 Attributes

MTS.CommonName CN P/T 18.3.2 1
MTS.TeletexCommonName CN P/T 18.3.2 2
MTS.TeletexOrganizationName O P/T 18.3.9 3
MTS.TeletexPersonalName PN P/T 18.3.12 4
MTS.TeletexPersonalName.surname S P/T 18.3.12 4
MTS.TeletexPersonalName.given-name G P/T 18.3.12 4
MTS.TeletexPersonalName.initials I P/T 18.3.12 4
MTS.TeletexPersonalName
.generation-qualifier GQ P/T 18.3.12 4
MTS.TeletexOrganizationalUnitNames
.value OU P/T 18.3.10 5
MTS.TeletexDomainDefinedAttribute
.value DD P/T 18.1 6
MTS.PDSName PD-SERVICE P 18.3.11 7
MTS.PhysicalDeliveryCountryName PD-C P 18.3.13 8
MTS.PostalCode PD-CODE P 18.3.19 9
MTS.PhysicalDeliveryOfficeName PD-OFFICE P/T 18.3.14 10
MTS.PhysicalDeliveryOfficeNumber PD-OFFICE-NUM P/T 18.3.15 11
MTS.ExtensionORAddressComponents PD-EXT-ADDRESS P/T 18.3.4 12
MTS.PhysicalDeliveryPersonName PD-PN P/T 18.3.17 13
MTS.PhysicalDeliveryOrganizationName PD-O P/T 18.3.16 14
MTS.ExtensionPhysicalDelivery
AddressComponents PD-EXT-DELIVERY P/T 18.3.5 15
MTS.UnformattedPostalAddress PD-ADDRESS UPA 18.3.25 16
MTS.StreetAddress PD-STREET P/T 18.3.22 17
MTS.PostOfficeBoxAddress PD-BOX P/T 18.3.18 18
MTS.PosteRestanteAddress PD-RESTANTE P/T 18.3.20 19
MTS.UniquePostalName PD-UNIQUE P/T 18.3.26 20
MTS.LocalPostalAttributes PD-LOCAL P/T 18.3.6 21
MTS.ExtendedNetworkAddress
.e163-4-address.number NET-NUM N 18.3.7 22
MTS.ExtendedNetworkAddress
.e163-4-address.sub-address NET-SUB N 18.3.7 22
MTS.ExtendedNetworkAddress
.psap-address NET-PSAP X 18.3.7 22
MTS.TerminalType T-TY I 18.3.24 23













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The following keys identify different EBNF encodings, which are
associated with the ASCII representation of MTS.ORAddress.


Key Encoding

P printablestring
N numericstring
T teletex-string
P/T teletex-and-or-ps
UPA upa-string
I labelled-integer
X presentation-address

The EBNF for presentation-address is taken from the specification RFC
1278 'A String Encoding of Presentation Address' [23].

In most cases, the EBNF encoding maps directly to the ASN.1 encoding
of the attribute. There are a few exceptions. In cases where an
attribute can be encoded as either a PrintableString or NumericString
(Country, ADMD, PRMD), either form is mapped into the EBNF. When
generating ASN.1, the NumericString encoding shall be used if the
string contains digits and only digits.

There are a number of cases where the P/T (teletex-and-or-ps)
representation is used. Where the key maps to a single attribute,
this choice is reflected in the encoding of the attribute (attributes
10-21). For example:

/CN=yen*{165}/

For most of the 1984 attributes and common name, there is a
printablestring and a teletex variant. This pair of attributes is
mapped onto the single component here. This will give a clean
mapping for the common cases where only one form of the name is used.
If there is teletex attribute or teletex component only, and it
contains only characters in the printable string character set, it
shall be represented in the EBNF as if it had been encoded as
printable string. A single printable string representation shall
also be done when both forms are present and they have the same
printable string representation.

The Unformatted Postal Address has a slightly more complex mapping
onto a variant of (teletex-and-or-ps), defined as:

upa-string = [ printable-upa ] [ '*' teletex-string ]
printable-upa = printablestring *( '|' printablestring )




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The optional teletex part is straightforward. There is an (optional)
sequence of printable strings which are mapped in order. For
example:

/PD-ADDRESS=The Dome|The Square|Richmond|England/

X.400 (1992) has introduced a string representation of OR Addresses
(see F.401, Annex B). This has specified a number of string keywords
for attributes. As earlier versions of this specification were an
input to this work, many of the keywords are the same. To increase
compatibility, the following alternative values shall be recognised
when mapping from RFC 822 to X.400. These shall not be generated
when mapping from X.400 to RFC 822. The following keyword
alternative table and the subsequent paragraph lists alternative
keywords.


Keyword Alternative

ADMD A
PRMD P
GQ Q
X121 X.121
UA-ID N-ID
PD-OFFICE-NUM PD-OFFICE NUMBER
PD-OFFICE-NUM PD-OFN
PD-EXT-ADDRESS PD-EA
PD-EXT-DELIVERY PD-ED
PD-OFFICE PD-OF
PD-STREET PD-S
PD-UNIQUE PD-U
PD-LOCAL PD-L
PD-RESTANTE PD-R
PD-BOX PD-B
PD-CODE PD-PC
PD-SERVICE PD-SN
DD DDA
NET-NUM E.164
NET-PSAP PSAP
PD-ADDRESS PD-A

When mapping from RFC 822 to X.400, the keywords defined in this
paragraph shall be recognized. The ordered keywords: OU1, OU2,
OU3, and OU4, shall be recognised. If these are present, no
keyword OU shall be present. These will be treated as ordered
values of OU. PD-A1, PD-A2, PD-A3, PD-A4, PD-A5, PD-A6 shall be
treated as ordered lines. If present, these will be assembled
with separating line feeds to form a single physical address. In



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this case PD-ADDRESS (or PD-A) shall not be present. Similarly,
there are ordered keywords for domain defined attributes: DD1,
DD2, DD3, DD4,

If ISDN is present, it may be interpreted as an E.163/164
address, using local heuristics to parse the string. X.400
defines the key, but does not give an interpretation of the
value.

For T-TY (Terminal Type), the X.400 recommended values are
preferred, but other values are allowed. These values are: tlx
(3); ttx (4); g3fax (5); g4fax (6); ia5 (7); and vtx (8).

4.1.2. Encoding of Personal Name

Handling of Personal Name and Teletex Personal Name is a common
requirement. Therefore MIXER defines an alternative to the
EBNF.standard-type syntax, which utilises the 'human' conventions for
encoding these components. A syntax is defined, which is designed to
provide a clean encoding for the common cases of OR Address
specification where:

1. There is no generational qualifier

2. Initials, if present, contain only letters

3. Given Name, if present, does not contain full stop ('.'),
and is at least two characters long.

4. Surname does not contain full stop in the first two
characters.

5 If Surname is the only component, it does not contain full
stop.

The following EBNF is defined:

encoded-pn = [ given '.' ] *( initial '.' ) surname

given = 2*

initial = ALPHA

surname = printablestring







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This is used to map from any string containing only printable string
characters to an OR address personal name. To map from a string to
OR Address components, parse the string according to the EBNF. The
given name and surname are assigned directly. All EBNF.initial
tokens are concatenated without intervening full stops to generate
the initials component.

For an OR address which follows the above restrictions, a string is
derived in the natural manner. In this case, the mapping will be
reversible.

For example:

GivenName = 'Marshall'
Surname = 'Rose'

Maps with 'Marshall.Rose'

Initials = 'MT'
Surname = 'Rose'

Maps with 'M.T.Rose'

GivenName = 'Marshall'
Initials = 'MT'
Surname = 'Rose'

Maps with 'Marshall.M.T.Rose'

Note that X.400 suggests that Initials is used to encode all initials
except the surname (X.402 section 18.3.12). Therefore, the defined
encoding is 'natural' when either GivenName or Initials, but not
both, are present. The case where both are present can be encoded.

4.1.3. Standard Encoding of MTS.ORAddress

Given this structure, we can specify an EBNF representation of an OR
Address. The output format of addresses is defined by EBNF.std-or-
address. The more flexible input format is defined by EBNF.std-or-
address-input. The input EBNF has been added subsequent to RFC 1327,
to reflect the formal incorporation of a number of heuristics. The
address element separator on input may be '/', ';', or a mixture of
these. The output format is used in all examples.

std-or-address = 1*( '/' attribute '=' value ) '/'
attribute = standard-type
/ 'RFC-822'
/ dd-key '.' std-printablestring



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std-or-address-input = [ sep pair ] sep pair *( sep pair )
sep [ pair sep ]

sep = '/' / ';'
pair = input-attribute '=' value
input-attribute = attribute
/ dd-key ':' std-printablestring

standard-type = key-string

dd-key = key-string

value = std-printablestring

std-printablestring
= *( std-char / std-pair )

std-char = <'{', '}', '*', and any ps-char
except '/' and '=' >
std-pair = '$' ps-char

For address generation, the standard-type is any key defined in the
key table in Section 4.1, except PN, and DD. For address parsing,
other key values from Section 4.1 are also valid. The EBNF leads to
a set of attribute/value pairs. The value is interpreted according to
the EBNF encoding defined in the table.

If the standard-type is PN, the value is interpreted according to
EBNF.encoded-pn, and the components of MTS.PersonalName and/or
MTS.TeletexPersonalName derived accordingly.

If dd-key is the recognised Domain Defined string (DD) or one of the
alternatives defined in Section 4.1, then the type and value are
interpreted according to the syntax implied from the encoding, and
aligned to either the teletex or printable string form. Key and
value shall have the same encoding.

If value is 'RFC-822', then the (printable string) Domain Defined
Type of 'RFC-822' is assumed. This is an optimised encoding of the
domain defined type defined by this specification.

The matching of all keywords shall be done in a case-independent
manner.

EBNF.std-or-address uses the characters '/' and '=' as delimiters.
Domain Defined Attributes and any value may contain these characters.
A quoting mechanism, using the non-printable string '$' is used to
allow these characters to be represented.



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If an address of this syntax is parsed, and a country value is
present, but no ADMD, the string shall be interpreted as if an ADMD
value of single space had been specified.

4.2. Global Address Mapping

From a user perspective, the ideal mapping would be entirely
symmetrical and global, to enable addresses to be referred to
transparently in the remote system, with the choice of gateway being
left to the Message Transfer Service. There are two fundamental
reasons why this is not possible:

1. The syntaxes are sufficiently different to make this
impossible.

2 There is insufficient administrative co-operation between
the X.400 and RFC 822 name registration authorities for this
to work.

Another way to view this situation is to see that there is not a full
global equivalence between X.400 and RFC 822 addressing. To meet
user needs to the extent possible, this specification provides for
equivalence where there is sufficient co-operation. To be useful,
this equivalence shall be recognised and interpreted in the same way
by all gateways. Therefore, an asymmetrical mapping is defined,
which can be symmetrical where there is appropriate administrative
co-operation. Section 4.3 describes the asymetrical aspects. This
section describes a mechanism to enable the administrative co-
ordination for symmetrical mappings.

In order to achieve a symmetrical mapping there is a need to define
an administrative equivalence between parts of the OR Address and
Domain namespaces. Previous version of this specification did this
by definition of a global set of mappings. MIXER defines the concept
of a MIXER Conformant Global Address Mapping (MCGAM). This acronym
is defined so that it is very clear what is being referenced.

The X.400 and Internet Mail address spaces are hierarchical. It is
possible to define an equivalence between two points in the
hierarchies, such that addresses below that point can be derived in
an algorithmic manner. An MCGAM is a mapping from a point in one
hierarchy to a point in the other hierarchy. An 'MGGAM pair' is a
pair of symmetrical mappings between two points. To define an MCGAM,
the following shall apply:

1. The authority defining the MCGAM shall have responsibility
for BOTH of the namespaces between which the MCGAM is
defined.



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2. The authority defining the MCGAM is responsible to ensure
that addresses allocated below the two equivalence points
conform to the rules set out below.

3. The authority defining the MCGAM is responsible to ensure
that addresses which are generated according to the MCGAM
are routed correctly.

In general, MCGAMs will be independent. In some cases, a set of
MCGAMs may be related (e.g., where one MCGAM defines a mapping for an
organization and a second MCGAM defines an excpetion for a subtree
within the organization). In this case, the related set of MCGAMs
shall be treated as a single MCGAM for distribution purposes.

The existence of an MCGAM does not imply routability and access for
all users.

The authority defining an MCGAM may simply use this mapping locally.
This will often be the case in a 'local scenario' gateway. Because
of third party addressing, a MIXER gateway will work best with the
maximum number of MCGAMs. Therefore, three mechanisms are defined
to enable publication and exchange of MCGAMs:

1. Distribution of text tables. This is described in Appendix
F of this specification.

2. Distribution by Domain Name Service. This is described in
RFC 2163 [3].

3. Distribution by X.500 Directory Service. This is defined
in RFC 2164 [26].

The following sections define how the MCGAM namespace equivalence is
modelled. The Internet Domain Namespace defines a simple hierarchy.
For the purposes of this mapping, only parts of the namespace where
domains conform to the EBNF domain-syntax are allowed.

domain-syntax = alphanum [ *alphanumhyphen alphanum ]
alphanum =
alphanumhyphen =

Although RFC 822 allows for a more general syntax, this restricted
syntax is used in MIXER as it is the one chosen by the various domain
service administrations. In practice, it reflects all RFC 822 usage.







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The following OR Address attributes are considered as a hierarchy,
and may be specified by the domain. They are (in order of the
hierarchy defined by MIXER):

Country, ADMD, PRMD, Organization, Organizational Units

There may be up to four ordered Organizational Units. This
hierarchy reflects most usage of X.400, although X.400 may be used in
other ways. In particular, it covers the Mnemonic OR Address using a
1984 compatible encoding. This is seen as the dominant form of OR
Address. MCGAMs may only be used when this hierarchy applies.

An equivalence mapping is defined between two nodes in the respective
hierarchies. For example:

=> 'AC.UK' might be mapped with
PRMD='UK.AC', ADMD='GOLD 400', C='GB'

The mapping identifies that the management of these points in the
respective hierarchies is the same (or co-operate very closely). The
equivalence means that the namespaces below this equivalence point
map 1:1, except where the mapping is overridden by further
equivalence mappings lower down the hierarchy. This equivalence may
be achieved in three ways:

1. All of the nodes below this point are RFC 822, and the MIXER
mapping defines the X.400 addresses for these nodes.

2. All of the nodes below this point are X.400, and the MIXER
mapping defines the RFC 822 addresses for these nodes.

3. There are X.400 and RFC 822 nodes below this point, and
addressing is managed in a manner which ensures the
equivalence. The rules to achieve this are defined by
MIXER.

Each of these ways gives a framework for MCGAM definition.

When an MCGAM is defined, a systematic mapping for the inferior nodes
in the two hierarchies follows. This is a 1:1 mapping between the
nodes in the subtrees. For example, given the MCGAM pair defined
above:

the domain 'R-D.Salford.AC.UK' algorithmically maps with
OU='R-D', O='Salford', PRMD='UK.AC', ADMD='GOLD 400', C='GB'






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Note that when an equivalence is defined, that this can be re-defined
for lower points in the hierarchy. However, it is not possible to
declare contained subtrees to be un-mappable.

The equivalence mapping also provides a mechanism to deal with
missing elements in the X.400 hierarchy (most commonly the PRMD,
which is the only element that may be ommitted when conforming to
recent versions of X.400). A domain may be associated with an
omitted attribute in conjunction with several present ones. When
performing the algorithmic insertion of components lower in the
hierarchy, the omitted value shall be skipped. For example:

If there is an MCGAM pair between domain HNE.EGM' and 'O=HNE',
'ADMD=ECQ', 'C=TC', and omitted PRMD

then

'ZI.HNE.EGM' is algorithmically mapped with 'OU=I', 'O=HNE',
'ADMD=ECQ', 'C=TC'

Attributes may have null values, and this is treated separately from
omitted attributes (while it is not ideal to make this distinction,
it is useful in practice).

4.2.1. Directory and Nameserver Mappings

When a set of MCGAMs are supported by X.500 or DNS, there is the
possibility that results will be indeterminate due to timeout.
Lookup shall be repeated until a value is determined, in order to
maintain consistent gateway operation.

Where the mapping relates to an envelope address, the gateway shall
non-deliver messages according to the associated MTA's normal timeout
policy. Where the mapping relates to addresses in the message
header, there shall be a timeout in the range of 1-4 hours or shorter
if this is required to maintain quality of service constraints. If
a mapping cannot be done in this time, address encapsulation shall be
used.

4.3. EBNF.822-address <-> MTS.ORAddress

This section defines the basic address mapping.

4.3.1. X.400 encoded in RFC 822

This section defines how X.400 addresses are represented in RFC 822
addresses.




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The std-or-address syntax is used to encode OR Address information
in the 822.local-part of EBNF.822-address. Where there is an
applicable equivalence mapping, further OR Address information is
associated with the 822.domain component. This cannot be used in the
general case, due to character set problems, and to the variants of
X.400 OR Addresses which use different attribute types. The only way
to encode the full PrintableString character set in a domain is by
use of the 822.domain-ref syntax (i.e. 822.atom). This is likely to
cause problems on many systems. The effective character set of
domains is in practice reduced from the RFC 822 set, by restrictions
imposed by domain conventions and policy [10], and by the EBNF
definition in SMTP.

A generic 822.address consists of a 822.local-part and a sequence of
822.domains (e.g., <@domain1,@domain2:user@domain3>). All except the
822.domain associated with the 822.local-part (domain3 in this case)
are considered to specify routing within the RFC 822 world, and will
not be interpreted by the gateway (although they may have identified
the gateway from within the RFC 822 world).

The 822.domain associated with the 822.local-part identifies the
gateway from within the RFC 822 world. This final 822.domain may be
used to determine some number of OR Address attributes, where this
does not conflict with the first role. RFC 822 routing to gateways
will usually be set up to facilitate the 822.domain being used for
both purposes.

In the case that there is no applicable equivalence mapping, all of
the X.400 address is encoded in the 822.local-part and the 822.domain
identifies the gateway to which the message is being sent. This
technique may be used by the RFC 822 user for any X.400 address where
the equivalence mapping is not known.

In the case that there is an applicable MCGAM, the maximum number of
attributes are encoded in the 822.domain. The remaining attributes
are encoded on the LHS, using the EBNF.std-or-address syntax. For
example:

/I=J/S=Linnimouth/GQ=5/@Marketing.Widget.COM

encodes the MTS.ORAddress consisting of:


MTS.CountryName = 'TC'
MTS.AdministrationDomainName = 'BTT'
MTS.OrganizationName = 'Widget'
MTS.OrganizationalUnitNames.value = 'Marketing'
MTS.PersonalName.surname = 'Linnimouth'



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MTS.PersonalName.initials = 'J'
MTS.PersonalName.generation-qualifier = '5'

on the basis of an MCGAM pair between:

Domain: Widget.COM
OR Address: O='Widget', ADMD='BTT', C='TC'

Given the OR address, the domain Widget.COM is determined from the
equivalence mapping and the next component is determined
algorithmically to give Marketing.Widget.COM. The remaining
attributes are encoded on the LHS in 822.local-part.

There is a further mechanism to simplify the encoding of common
cases, where the only attributes to be encoded on the LHS are (non-
Teletex) Personal Name attributes which comply with the restrictions
of 4.1.2. To achieve this, the 822.local-part shall be encoded as
EBNF.encoded-pn. In the previous example, if the GenerationQualifier
was not present in the OR Address, it would map with the RFC 822
address: J.Linnimouth@Marketing.Widget.COM.

From the standpoint of the RFC 822 Message Transfer System, the
domain specification is used to route the message in the standard
manner. The standard domain mechanisms are used to select
appropriate gateways for the corresponding OR Address space. It is
the responsibility of the management that defines the equivalence
mapping to define routing in the manner which will enable the message
to be delivered.

4.3.2. RFC 822 encoded in X.400

The previous section showed a mapping from X.400 to RFC 822. In the
case where the mapping was symmetrical and based on the equivalence
mapping, this has also shown how RFC 822 is encoded in the X.400.
This equivalence cannot be used for all RFC 822 addresses.

The general case is mapped by use of domain defined attributes. A
(Printable String) Domain defined type 'RFC-822' is defined. The
associated attribute value is an ASCII string encoded according to
Section 3.3.3 of this specification. The interpretation of the ASCII
string follows RFC 822, and RFC 1123 [10,16]. Domains shall always
be fully qualified.









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Other OR Address attributes will be used to identify a context in
which the OR Address will be interpreted. This might be a Management
Domain, or some part of a Management Domain which identifies a
gateway MTA. For example:

C = 'GB'
ADMD = 'GOLD 400'
PRMD = 'UK.AC'
O = 'UCL'
OU = 'CS'
'RFC-822' = 'Jimmy(a)WIDGET-LABS.CO.UK'

OR

C = 'TC'
ADMD = 'Wizz.mail'
PRMD = '42'
'rfc-822' = 'postel(a)venera.isi.edu'

Note in each case the PrintableString encoding of '@' as '(a)'. In
the second example, the 'RFC-822' domain defined attribute is
interpreted everywhere within the (Private) Management Domain. In
the first example, further attributes are needed within the
Management Domain to identify a gateway. Thus, this scheme can be
used with varying levels of Management Domain co-operation.

There is a limit of 128 characters in the length of value of a domain
defined attribute, and an OR Address can have a maxmimum of four
domain defined attributes. Where the printable string generated from
the RFC 822 address exceeds 128 characters, additional domain defined
attributes are used to enable up to 512 characters to be encoded.
These attributes shall be filled completely before the next one is
started. The (Printable String) DDA keywords are: RFC822C1;
RFC822C2; RFC822C3. Longer addresses cannot be encoded.

MIXER defines a representation of RFC 822 addresses in printable
string domain defined attributes. Teletex domain defined attributes
with a key of RFC-822, RFC822C1; RFC822C2; RFC822C3 shall not be
generated. This is for backwards compatibility reasons.












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Reception of these attributes in the manner defined below is
mandatory. This is to allow the possibility for future versions of
MIXER to allow generation of teletex domain defined attributes.
Where the values of all of these teletex domain defined attributes
are printable string characters, they shall be interpreted in the
same way as the printable string domain defined attributes. If this
is not the case, the printable string encoding translation shall be
omitted. If both teletex and printable string attributes are
present, this is valid if and only if they represent exactly the same
RFC 822 address.

4.3.3. Component Ordering

In most cases, ordering of OR Address components is not significant
for the mappings specified. However, Organizational Units (printable
string and teletex forms) and Domain Defined Attributes are specified
as SEQUENCE in MTS.ORAddress, and so their order may be significant.
This specification needs to take account of this:

1. To allow consistent mapping into the domain hierarchy

2. To ensure preservation of order over multiple mappings.

There are three places where an order is specified:

1. The text encoding (std-or-address) of MTS.ORAddress as used
in the local-part of an RFC 822 address. An order is needed
for those components which may have multiple values
(Organizational Unit, and Domain Defined Attributes). When
generating an 822.std-or-address, components of a given type
shall be in hierarchical order with the most significant
component on the RHS (right hand side or domain part). If
there is an Organization Attribute, it shall be to the right
of any Organizational Unit attributes. These requirements
are for the following reasons:

- Alignment to the hierarchy of other components in RFC
822 addresses (thus, Organizational Units will appear
in the same order, whether encoded on the RHS or LHS).

- Backwards compatibility with RFC 987/1026.

- To ensure that gateways generate consistent addresses.
This is both to help end users, and to generate
identical message ids.






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Further, it is recommended that all other attributes are generated
according to this ordering, so that all attributes so encoded follow
a consistent hierarchy. When generating 822.msg-id, this order shall
be followed.

2. For the Organizational Units (OU) in MTS.ORAddress, the
first OU in the SEQUENCE is the most significant, as specified
in X.400.

3. For the Domain Defined Attributes in MTS.ORAddress, the
First Domain Defined Attribute in the SEQUENCE is the most
significant.

Note that although this ordering is mandatory for this mapping, MIXER
does not give additional implications on the ordering significance
within X.400.

4.3.4. RFC 822 -> X.400 Basic Address Mapping

There are two basic cases:

1. X.400 addresses encoded in RFC 822. This will also include
RFC 822 addresses which are given reversible encodings.

2. 'Genuine' RFC 822 addresses.

The mapping shall proceed as follows, by first assuming case 1).

STAGE I.

1. If the 822-address is not of the form:

local-part '@' domain

take the domain which will be routed on and apply step 2 of stage
1 to derive (a possibly null) set of attributes. Then go to stage
II.

The gateway may reduce a source route address to this form by
removal of all but the last domain. In terms of the design
intentions of RFC 822, this would be an incorrect action. (Note
that an address of the form local%part@domain is not a source
route). However, in most cases, it will provide a better service








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to the end user, and is in line with the Internet Host
Requirements. This is a reflection on the common inappropriate
use of source routing in RFC 822 based systems, despite the
discussion in the Host Requirements [10]. Either approach, or
the intermediate approach of stripping only domain references
which reference the local gateway are conformant to this
specification.

2. If the 822.local-part uses the 822.quoted-string encoding,
remove this quoting. If the resulting unquoted
822.local-part has leading space, trailing space, or two
adjacent spaces go to stage II.

3. If the unquoted 822.local-part contains any characters not
in PrintableString, '{', '}', '*', and '$', go to stage II.

4. Parse the (unquoted) 822.local-part according to the EBNF
EBNF.std-or-address-input. Checking of upper bounds shall
not be done at this point. If this parse fails, parse the
local-part according to the EBNF EBNF.encoded-pn. If this
parse fails, go to stage II. The result is a set of
type/value pairs.

5. Associate the EBNF.attribute-value syntax (determined from
the identified type) with each value, and check that it
conforms. If not, go to stage II.

6. If the set of attributes forms a valid X.400 address,
according to X.402, then go to step 9. All forms of X.400
address are allowed at this stage. Steps 7-8 default
attributes for certain types of OR Address.

7. If the set of attributes cannot form a mnemonic form of
X.400 address after addition of attributes which may be
derived from the EBNF.domain (C, ADMD, PRMD, O, OU), go to
stage II.

8. Attempt to parse EBNF.domain as:

*( domain-syntax '.' ) known-domain

Where EBNF.known-domain is the longest possible match in the set
of MCGAMs being used by the gateway (described in Section 4.2).
EBNF.domain-syntax is the restricted domain syntax defined in
Section 4.2, to which all of the domain components shall conform
for the parse to be successful. If this fails, go to stage II.





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For each component, systematically allocate the attribute
implied by each EBNF.domain-syntax component in the order: C,
ADMD, PRMD, O, OU. Note that if the MCGAM used identifies an
'omitted attribute', then this attribute shall be omitted in the
systematic allocation. If this new component exceed an upper
bound (ADMD: 16; PRMD: 16; O: 64; OU: 32) or it would lead to
more than four OUs, then go to stage II with the attributes
derived.

The attributes derived in this step (referred to as RHS
attributes) are merged with the ones derived from the LHS (step
6). In some cases, not all of the RHF attributes are used. LHS
attributes are all used. C will not be in the LHS attributes.
If ADMD is in the LHS attributes, only C is taken from the RHS
attributes. If PRMD is in the LHS attributes, C and ADMD are
taken from the RHS attributes. If O is on the LHS, C, ADMD and
PRMD (if present) are taken from the RHS attributes. In other
cases all RHS attributes are taken.

9. Ensure that the set of attributes conforms both to the
MTS.ORAddress specification and to the restrictions on this
set given in X.400, and that no upper bounds are exceeded
for any attribute. If not go to stage II.

10. Build the OR Address from this information.

STAGE II.

This will only be reached if the RFC 822 EBNF.822-address is not a
valid X.400 encoding. This implies that the address refers to a
recipient on an RFC 822 system or that the encoding of the address is
invalid. Such addresses shall be encoded in an X.400 OR Address
using a domain defined attribute.

1. Convert the EBNF.822-address to PrintableString, as
specified in Chapter 3.

2. Generate the 'RFC-822' domain defined attribute from this
string.

3. Build the rest of the OR Address in the manner described
below.









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It is not always possible to encode the domain defined attribute
due to length restrictions. If the limit is exceeded by a
mapping at the MTS level, then the gateway shall reject the
message in question. If this occurs at the IPMS level, then the
action will depend on the policy being taken for IPMS encoding,
which is discussed in Section 5.1.3.

Use Stage I, step 8, to generate a set of attributes to build the
remainder of the address. The administrative equivalence of the
mappings will ensure correct routing through X.400 to a gateway
back to RFC 822.

If Stage I, step 8 does not generate a set of attributes or
the address generated is unroutable, the remained of the OR
address is generated as follows. The remainder of the OR address
effectively identifies a source route to a gateway from the X.400
side. There are three cases, which are handled differently:

SMTP Return Address
This shall be set up so that errors are returned through the
same gateway. Therefore, the OR Address of the local
gateway shall be used.

IPMS Addresses
These are optimised for replying. In general, the message
may end up anywhere within the X.400 world, and so this
optimisation identifies a gateway appropriate for the RFC
822 address being converted. The 822.domain to which the
address would be routed is used to select an appropriate
gateway.

In this case, it may be useful to use a non-local gateway,
which will optimise the reply address. This information
may be looked up in gateway tables in a manner equivalent to
the MCGAM lookup. Because of the similarity of lookup, the
three MCGAM lookup mechanisms (table, X.500, DNS) are also
available to look up this information. This information is
local, and a gateway may insert any appropriate (gateway)
OR Address. The longest possible match on the 822.domain
defines which gateway to use. This mechanism is used for
any part of the X.400 namespace for which it is desirable to
identify a preferred X.400 gateway in order to optimise
routing.

If no mapping is found for the 822.domain, a default value
(typically that of the local gateway) is used. It is never
appropriate to ignore the locally used MCGAMs.




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SMTP Recipient
As the RFC 822 and X.400 worlds are in principle fully
connected, there is no technical reason for this situation
to occur. In practice, this is not the case. In some cases,
routing may be configured to use X.400 to connect an RFC 822
island to the Internet. The information that this part of
the domain space is to be routed by X.400 rather than
remaining within the RFC 822 world shall be configured
privately into the gateway in question. X.400 routing shall
not make use of the presence of the RFC-822 DDA to perform
X.400 routing. The OR address shall then be generated in
the same manner as for an IPMS address, using the locally
available MCGAMs. It is to support this case that the
definition of the global domain to gateway mapping is
important, as the use of this mapping will lead to a remote
X.400 address, which can be routed by X.400 routing
procedures. The information in this mapping shall not be
used as a basis for deciding to convert a message from RFC
822 to X.400.

Three examples are given, neither of which has applicable MCGAMs.

Example 1: (Address not in 'localpart' '@' 'domainpart')

@relay.co.uk:userb@host2

maps to

c=gb; a= ; p=uk.ac; o=mr; dd.rfc-822=(a)relay.co.uk:userb(a)host2;

Example 2: (Address with non printablestring characters)

Tom_Harris@cs.widget.com

maps to

c=us; a=MCI; P=relay; dd.rfc-822=Tom(u)Harris(a)cs.widget.com;


Example 3: (Address with an entry for alter.net into the OR Address
of Preferred Gateway table, pointing to c=gb; A=BTglobal; P=relay)

postmaster@UK.alter.net

maps to

c=gb; a=BTglobal; P=relay; dd.rfc-822=postmaster(a)UK.alter.net;




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4.3.4.1. Heuristic for mapping RFC 822 to X.400

The following heuristic, which relates to ordering of address
components, may be used when mapping from RFC 822 to X.400. The
ordering of attributes may be inverted or mixed, and so the following
heuristics may be applied:

If there is an Organization attribute to the left of any Org Unit
attribute, assume that the hierarchy is inverted. This is to
facilitate the situation where a user has input the attributes in
reverse hierarchical order. To do this the gateway shall first
map according to the order defined in 4.3.3. If this mapping
generates an address which X.400 address verification shows to be
invalid, this heuristic may be applied as an alternative to
immediate rejection of the address.

4.3.5. X.400 -> RFC 822 Basic Address Mapping

There are two basic cases:

1. RFC 822 addresses encoded in X.400.

2. 'Genuine' X.400 addresses. This may include symmetrically
encoded RFC 822 addresses.

When an MTS Recipient OR Address is interpreted, gatewaying will be
selected if there is a single 'RFC-822' domain defined attribute
present. In this case, use mapping A and in other cases, use mapping
B.

RFC 1327 specified that this shall only be done when the gateway
identfied is local or otherwise known, and identified the approach
specified here as a pragmatic option. Experience has shown that this
is effective in practice, despite theoretical problems.

If a gateway wishes to make a mapping in a manner similar to RFC
1327, but does not wish for this global interpretation (e.g., to
support an RFC 822 local system, which does not use global
addressing), then it may choose a private domain defined attribute,
different to 'RFC-822'. An RFC 1327 gateway might be configurable to
operate in this manner.

Mapping A

1. Map the domain defined attribute value to ASCII, as defined
in Chapter 3, and drop all other attributes.





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Mapping B

This is used for X.400 addresses which do not use the explicit RFC
822 encoding.

1. For all string encoded attributes, remove any leading or
trailing spaces, and replace adjacent spaces with a single
space.

The only attribute which is permitted to have zero length is
the ADMD. This shall be mapped onto a single space.

These transformations are for lookup only. If an
EBNF.std-or-address mapping is used as in 4), then the
original values shall be used.

2. The numeric country codes may be mapped to the two letter
values (as defined in ISO 3166). Global mappings are
usually only defined in terms of the ISO 3166 codes.

3. Noting the hierarchy specified in 4.3.1 and including
omitted attributes, determine the maximum set of attributes
which have an associated domain specification in the local
set of MCGAMs. If no match is found, allocate the domain as
described below, and go to step 5. The default domain to be
used is the specification of the local gateway. A gateway
may use other domains according to private mapping tables or
heuristics. For example, it may choose a domain which it
knows to provide a free gateway service to the mapped
address.

In cases where the address refers to an X.400 UA, it is
important that the generated domain will correctly route to
a gateway. In general, this is achieved by carefully co-
ordinating RFC 822 routing with the definition of the
MCGAMs, as there is no easy way for the gateway to make this
check. One rule that shall be used is that domains with
only one component will not route to a gateway. If the
generated domain does not route correctly, the address is
treated as if no match is found.

The gateway may also make use of a mapping equivalent to the
MCGAM mapping to determine the domain to use. This mapping
is done from the OR Address hierarchy. This is not a
global mapping, but is a routing style mapping from the OR
Address space, to enable a best choice domain to be
inserted. This mapping is supported by the three MCGAM
lookup mechanisms.



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4. The mapping identified in 3) gives a domain, and an OR
address prefix. Follow the hierarchy: C, ADMD, PRMD, O, OU.
For each successive component below the OR address prefix, which
conforms to the syntax EBNF.domain-syntax (as defined in 4.3.1),
allocate the next subdomain. At least one attribute of the
X.400 address shall not be mapped onto subdomain, as 822.local-
part cannot be null. If there are omitted attributes in the OR
address prefix, these will have correctly and uniquely mapped to
a domain component. Where there is an attribute omitted below
the prefix, all attributes remaining in the OR address shall be
encoded on the LHS. This is to ensure a reversible mapping. For
example, if there is an address /S=XX/O=YY/ADMD=A/C=NN/ and a
mapping for /ADMD=A/C=NN/ is used, then /S=XX/O=YY/ is encoded
on the LHS.

5. If the address contains any attribute not used in mnemonic
form, then all of the attributes in the address shall be encoded
on the LHS in EBNF.std-or-address syntax, as described below.

For addresses of mnemonic form, if the remaining components are
personal-name components, conforming to the restrictions of
4.2.1, then EBNF.encoded-pn is derived to form 822.local-part.
In other cases the remaining components are simply encoded as
822.local-part using the EBNF.std-or-address syntax. If
necessary, the 822.quoted-string encoding is used. The
following are examples of legal quoting: 'a b'.c@x; 'a b.c'@x.
Either form may be generated. Generation of the latter style is
strongly recommended.

Four examples are given.

Example 1: (Address with missing X.400 elements and no specific
mapping rule for 'o=sales; a=Master400; C=it', where a mapping exists
for a=master400; C=it;)

S=Support; O=sales; A=Master400; C=it;

maps to

/S=Support/o=sales/@Master400.it











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Example 2: (Address with illegal characters in RFC822 generated
domain if default hierarchical translation (specific mapping rule is
existing for c=fr; a=atlas; p=autoroutes) is used)

S=renseignements; O=Region Parisienne; P=autoroutes; A=atlas; C=fr;

maps to

'/S=renseignements/o=Region Parisienne/'@autoroutes.fr


Example 3: (Address containing elements not mappable into RFC822
local part)

S=Rossi; DD.cap=20100; DD.ph1=Via Larga 11; DDA.city=Milano;
A=PtPostel; C=it;

maps to

'/DD.cap=20100/DD.ph1=Via Larga
11/DD.city=Milano/S=Rossi/'@ptpostel.it


Example 4: (Address with an entry for A=ATT; C=us; into the domain
of Preferred Gateway table, pointing to attmail.com)

G=Andy; S=Wharol; O=MMNY; A=ATT; C=us;

maps to

/G=Andy/S=Wharol/O=MMNY@attmail.com

4.4. Repeated Mappings

There are two types of repeated mapping:

1. A recursive mapping, where the repeat is within one gateway

2 A source route, where the repetition occurs across multiple
gateways











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4.4.1. Recursive Mappings

It is possible to supply an address which is recursive at a single
gateway. For example:

C = 'XX'
ADMD = 'YY'
O = 'ZZ'
'RFC-822' = 'Smith(a)ZZ.YY.XX'

This is mapped first to an RFC 822 address, and then back to the
X.400 address:

C = 'XX'
ADMD = 'YY'
O = 'ZZ'
Surname = 'Smith'

In some situations this type of recursion may be frequent. It is
important where this occurs, that no unnecessary protocol conversion
occurs. This will minimise loss of service.

4.4.2. Source Routes

The mappings defined are symmetrical and reversible across a single
gateway. The symmetry is particularly useful in cases of (mail
exploder type) distribution list expansion. For example, an X.400
user sends to a list on an RFC 822 system which he belongs to. The
received message will have the originator and any 3rd party X.400 OR
Addresses in correct format (rather than doubly encoded). In cases
(X.400 or RFC 822) where there is common agreement on gateway
identification, then this will apply to multiple gateways.

When a message traverses multiple gateways, the mapping will always
be reversible, in that a reply can be generated which will correctly
reverse the path. In many cases, the mapping will also be
symmetrical, which will appear clean to the end user. For example,
if countries 'AB' and 'XY' have RFC 822 networks, but are
interconnected by X.400, the following may happen: The originator
specifies:

Joe.Soap@Widget.PTT.XY









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This is routed to a gateway, which generates:

C = 'XY'
ADMD = 'PTT'
PRMD = 'Griddle MHS Providers'
Organization = 'Widget Corporation'
Surname = 'Soap'
Given Name = 'Joe'

This is then routed to another gateway where the mapping is reversed
to give:

Joe.Soap@Widget.PTT.XY

Here, use of the gateway is transparent.

Mappings will only be symmetrical where mapping equivalences are
defined. In other cases, the reversibility is more important, due to
the (far too frequent) cases where RFC 822 and X.400 services are
partitioned.

The syntax may be used to source route. THIS IS STRONGLY
DISCOURAGED. For example:

X.400 -> RFC 822 -> X.400

C = 'UK'
ADMD = 'Gold 400'
PRMD = 'UK.AC'
'RFC-822' = '/PN=Duval/DD.Title=Manager/(a)Inria.ATLAS.FR'

This will be sent to an arbitrary UK Academic Community gateway by
X.400. Then it will be sent by JNT Mail to another gateway
determined by the domain Inria.ATLAS.FR (FR.ATLAS.Inria). This will
then derive the X.400 OR Address:

C = 'FR'
ADMD = 'ATLAS'
PRMD = 'Inria'
PN.S = 'Duval'
'Title' = 'Manager'










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Similarly:

RFC 822 -> X.400 -> RFC 822

'/RFC-822=jj(a)seismo.css.gov/PRMD=AC/ADMD=BT/C=GB/'@monet.berkeley.edu

This will be sent to monet.berkeley.edu by RFC 822, then to the
AC PRMD by X.400, and then to jj@seismo.css.gov by RFC 822.

4.5. Directory Names

Directory Names are an optional part of OR Name, along with OR
Address. The RFC 822 addresses are mapped onto the OR Address
component. As there is no functional mapping for the Directory Name
on the RFC 822 side, a textual mapping is used. There is no
requirement for reversibility in terms of the goals of this
specification. There may be some loss of functionality in terms of
third party recipients where only a directory name is given, but this
seems preferable to the significant extra complexity of adding a full
mapping for Directory Names.

The Directory Name shall be represented within an RFC 822 comment
using the comaptible formats of RFC 1484 or RFC 1485. It is
recommended that the directory string format of RFC 1485 is used
[24]. The User Friendly Name form of RFC 1484 may be used [25].

4.6. MTS Mappings

The basic mappings at the MTS level are:

1) SMTP originator ->
MTS.PerMessageSubmissionFields.originator-name
MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields.originator-name ->
SMTP originator

2) SMTP recipient ->
MTS.PerRecipientMessageSubmissionFields
MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields.this-recipient-name ->
SMTP recipient

SMTP recipients and return addresses are encoded as EBNF.822-address.

The MTS Originator is always encoded as MTS.OriginatorName, which
maps onto MTS.ORAddressAndOptionalDirectoryName, which in turn maps
onto MTS.ORName.






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4.6.1. RFC 822 -> X.400 MTS Mappings

From the SMTP Originator, use the basic ORAddress mapping, to
generate MTS.PerMessageSubmissionFields.originator-name (MTS.ORName),
without a DirectoryName.

For recipients, the following settings are made for each component of
MTS.PerRecipientMessageSubmissionFields.

recipient-name
This is derived from the SMTP recipient by the basic ORAddress
mapping.

originator-report-request
This may either be set to 'delivery-report', or set according to
SMTP extensions as set out in Appendix A.

explicit-conversion
This optional component is omitted, as this service is not needed

extensions
The default value (no extensions) is used

4.6.2. X.400 -> RFC 822 MTS Mappings

The basic functionality is to generate the SMTP originator and
recipients. There is information present on the X.400 side, which
cannot be mapped into analogous SMTP services. For this reason, new
RFC 822 fields are added for the MTS Originator and Recipients. The
information discarded at the SMTP level will be present in these
fields. In some cases a (positive) delivery report will be generated.

4.6.2.1. SMTP Mappings

Use the basic ORAddress mapping, to generate the SMTP originator
(return address) from MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields.originator-name
(MTS.ORName). If MTS.ORName.directory-name is present, it is
discarded. (Note that it will be presented to the user, as described
in 4.6.2.2).

The mapping uses the MTA level information, and maps each value of
MTA.PerRecipientMessageTransferFields.recipient-name, where the
responsibility bit is set, onto an SMTP recipient.

Note:The SMTP recipient is conceptually generated from
MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields.this-recipient-name. This is done
by taking MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields.this-recipient-name, and
generating an SMTP recipient according to the basic ORAddress



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mapping, discarding MTS.ORName.directory-name if present.
However, if this model was followed exactly, there would be no
possibility to have multiple SMTP recipients on a single message.
This is unacceptable, and so layering is violated.

4.6.2.2. Generation of RFC 822 Headers

Not all per-recipient information can be passed at the SMTP level.
For this reason, two new RFC 822 headers are created, in order to
carry this information to the RFC 822 recipient. These fields are
'X400-Originator:' and 'X400-Recipients:'.

The 'X400-Originator:' field is set to the same value as the SMTP
originator. In addition, if
MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields.originator-name (MTS.ORName) contains
MTS.ORName.directory-name then this Directory Name shall be
represented in an 822.comment.

Recipient names, taken from each value of
MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields.this-recipient-name and
MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields.other-recipient-names are made
available to the RFC 822 user by use of the 'X400-Recipients:' field.
By taking the recipients at the MTS level, disclosure of recipients
will be dealt with correctly. However, this conflicts with a desire
to optimise mail transfer. There is no problem when disclosure of
recipients is allowed. Similarly, there is no problem if there is
only one RFC 822 recipient, as the 'X400-Recipients' field is only
given one address.

There is a problem if there are multiple RFC 822 recipients, and
disclosure of recipients is prohibited. In this case, discard the
per-recipient information.

If any MTS.ORName.directory-name is present, it shall be represented
in an 822.comment.

If MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields.orignally-intended-recipient-name
is present, then there has been redirection, or there has been
distribution list expansion. Distribution list expansion is a per-
message option, and the information associated with this is
represented by the 'DL-Expansion-History:' field described in Section
5.3.6. Other information is represented in an 822.comment associated
with MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields.this-recipient-name, The message
may be delivered to different RFC 822 recipients, and so several
addresses in the 'X400-Recipients:' field may have such comments.
The non-commented recipient is the RFC 822 recipient. The EBNF of the
comment is defined by redirect-comment.




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redirect-comment = redirect-first *( redirect-subsequent )

redirect-first = 'Originally To:' mailbox 'Redirected on'
date-time 'To:' redirection-reason

redirect-subsequent = mailbox 'Redirected Again on'
date-time 'To:' redirection-reason

redirection-history-item = 'intended recipient' mailbox
'redirected to' redirection-reason
'on' date-time

redirection-reason =
'Recipient Assigned Alternate Recipient'
/ 'Originator Requested Alternate Recipient'
/ 'Recipient MD Assigned Alternate Recipient'
/ 'Directory Look Up'
/ 'Alias'

It is derived from
MTA.PerRecipientMessageTransferFields.extension.redirection-history.
The values are taken from the X.400(92) Implementor's guide (Version
13, July 1995). The first three values are in X.400(88). The
fourth value is in X.400(92), but has the name 'recipient-directory-
substitution-alternate-recipient'. An example of this with two
redirects is:

X400-Recipients: postmaster@widget.com (Originally To:
sales-manager@sales.widget.com
Redirected on Thu, 30 May 91 14:39:40 +0100
To: Originator Requested Alternate Recipient
postmaster@sales.widget.com
Redirected Again on Thu, 30 May 91 14:41:20 +0100
To: Recipient MD Assigned Alternate Recipient)

In addition the following per-recipient services from
MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields.extensions are represented in comments
if they are used. None of these services can be provided on RFC 822
networks, and so in general these will be informative strings
associated with other MTS recipients. In some cases, string values
are defined. For the remainder, the string value shall be chosen by
the implementor. If the parameter has a default value, then no
comment shall be inserted when the parameter has that default value.

requested-delivery-method

physical-forwarding-prohibited
'(Physical Forwarding Prohibited)'.



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physical-forwarding-address-request
'(Physical Forwarding Address Requested)'.

physical-delivery-modes

registered-mail-type

recipient-number-for-advice

physical-rendition-attributes

physical-delivery-report-request
'(Physical Delivery Report Requested)'.

proof-of-delivery-request
'(Proof of Delivery Requested)'.

4.6.2.3. Delivery Report Generation

If SMTP is used, the behaviour is specified in Appendix A. In other
cases, if MTA.PerRecipientMessageTransferFields.per-recipient-
indicators requires a positive delivery notification, this shall be
generated by the gateway. Supplementary Information shall be set to
indicate that the report is gateway generated. This information
shall include the name of the gateway generating the report.

4.6.3. Message IDs (MTS)

A mapping from 822.msg-id to MTS.MTSIdentifier is defined. The
reverse mapping is not needed, as MTS.MTSIdentifier is always mapped
onto new RFC 822 fields. The value of MTS.MTSIdentifier.local-part
will facilitate correlation of gateway errors.

To map from 822.msg-id, apply the standard mapping to 822.msg-id, in
order to generate an MTS.ORAddress. The Country, ADMD, and PRMD
components of this are used to generate MTS.MTSIdentifier.global-
domain-identifier. MTS.MTSIdentifier.local-identifier is set to the
822.msg-id, including the braces '<' and '>'. If this string is
longer than MTS.ub-local-id-length (32), then it is truncated to this
length.

The reverse mapping is not used in this specification. It would be
applicable where MTS.MTSIdentifier.local-identifier is of syntax
822.msg-id, and it algorithmically identifies MTS.MTSIdentifier.







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4.7. IPMS Mappings

All RFC 822 addresses are assumed to use the 822.mailbox syntax.
This includes all 822.comments associated with the lexical tokens of
the 822.mailbox. In the IPMS OR Names are encoded as MTS.ORName.
This is used within the IPMS.ORDescriptor, IPMS.RecipientSpecifier,
and IPMS.IPMIdentifier. An asymmetrical mapping is defined between
these components.

4.7.1. RFC 822 -> X.400

To derive IPMS.ORDescriptor from an RFC 822 address.

1. Take the address, and extract an EBNF.822-address. Any
source routing shall be removed. This can be derived trivially
from either the 822.addr-spec or 822.route-addr syntax. This is
mapped to MTS.ORName as described above, and used as
IMPS.ORDescriptor.formal-name.

2. A string shall be built consisting of (if present):

- The 822.phrase component if the 822.address is an
822.phrase 822.route-addr construct.

- Any 822.comments, in order, retaining the parentheses.

This string is then encoded into T.61 using a human oriented
mapping (as described in Section 3.5). If the string is not
null, it is assigned to IPMS.ORDescriptor.free-form-name.

3. IPMS.ORDescriptor.telephone-number is omitted.

If IPMS.ORDescriptor is being used in IPMS.RecipientSpecifier,
IPMS.RecipientSpecifier.reply-request and
IPMS.RecipientSpecifier.notification-requests are set to default
values (false and none).

If the 822.group construct is present, any included 822.mailbox is
encoded as above to generate a separate IPMS.ORDescriptor. The
822.group is mapped to T.61 (as described in Section 3.5), and a
IPMS.ORDescriptor with only an free-form-name component built from
it.

4.7.2. X.400 -> RFC 822

Mapping from IPMS.ORDescriptor to RFC 822 address. In the basic
case, where IPMS.ORDescriptor.formal-name is present, proceed as
follows.



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1. Encode IPMS.ORDescriptor.formal-name (MTS.ORName) as
EBNF.822-address.

2a. If IPMS.ORDescriptor.free-form-name is present, convert it
to ASCII or T.61 (Section 3.5), and use this as the 822.phrase
component of 822.mailbox using the 822.phrase 822.route-addr
construct.

2b. If IPMS.ORDescriptor.free-form-name is absent. If
EBNF.822-address is parsed as 822.addr-spec use this as the
encoding of 822.mailbox. If EBNF.822-address is parsed as
822.route 822.addr-spec, then an 822.phrase taken from
822.local-part is added.

3 If IPMS.ORDescriptor.telephone-number is present, this is
placed in an 822.comment, with the string 'Tel '. The normal
international form of number is used. For example:

(Tel +44-181-333-7777)

4. If IPMS.ORDescriptor.formal-name.directory-name is present,
then a text representation is placed in a trailing 822.comment.

5. If IPMS.RecipientSpecifier.report-request has any non-
default values, then an 822.comment '(Receipt Notification
Requested)', and/or '(Non Receipt Notification Requested)',
and/or '(IPM Return Requested)' may be appended to the address.
'(Receipt Notification Requested)' may be used to infer '(Non
Receipt Notification Requested)'. The effort of correlating P1
and P2 information is too great to justify the gateway sending
Receipt Notifications.

In RFC 1327, inclusion of these comments was mandatory.
Experience has shown that the clutter and confusion caused to
RFC 822 users does not justify the information conveyed.
Implementors are recommended to not include these comments.
Unless an application is found where retention of these comments
is desirable, they will be dropped from the next version.

6. If IPMS.RecipientSpecifier.reply-request is True, an
822.comment '(Reply requested)' is appended to the address.

If IPMS.ORDescriptor.formal-name is absent, IPMS.ORDescriptor.free-
form-name is converted to ASCII (see section 3.5), and used as
822.phrase within the RFC 822 822.group syntax. For example:

Free Form Name ':' ';'




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Steps 3-6 are then followed.

4.7.3. IP Message IDs

There is a need to map both ways between 822.msg-id and
IPMS.IPMIdentifier. This allows for X.400 Receipt Notifications,
Replies, and Cross References to reference an RFC 822 Message ID,
which is preferable to a gateway generated ID. A reversible and
symmetrical mapping is defined. This provides fully reversible
mappings when messages pass multiple times across the X.400/RFC 822
boundary.

An important issue with messages identifiers is mapping to the exact
form, as many systems use these ids as uninterpreted keys. The use
of table driven mappings is not always symmetrical, particularly in
the light of alternative domain names, and alternative management
domains. For this reason, a purely algorithmic mapping is used. A
mapping which is simpler than that for addresses can be used for two
reasons:

- There is no major requirement to make message IDs 'natural'

- There is no issue about being able to reply to message IDs.
(For addresses, creating a return path which works is more
important than being symmetrical).

The mapping works by defining a way in which message IDs generated on
one side of the gateway can be represented on the other side in a
systematic manner. The mapping is defined so that the possibility of
clashes is low enough to be treated as impossible.

4.7.3.1. 822.msg-id represented in X.400

IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user is omitted. The IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user-
relative-identifier is set to a printable string encoding of the
822.msg-id with the angle braces ('<' and '>') removed. The upper
bound on this component is 64. The options for handling this are
discussed in Section 5.1.3.

4.7.3.2. IPMS.IPMIdentifier represented in RFC 822

The 822.domain of 822.msg-id is set to the value 'MHS'. The
822.local-part of 822.msg-id is constructed by building a string of
syntax EBNF.id-loc from IPMS.IPMIdentifier.

id-loc ::= [ printablestring ] '*' [ std-or-address ]





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EBNF.printablestring is the IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user-relative-
identifier, and EBNF.std-or-address being an encoding of the
IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user derived according to this specification.
822.local-part is derived from EBNF.id-loc, if necessary using the
822.quoted-string encoding. For example:

<'147*/S=Dietrich/O=Siemens/ADMD=DBP/C=DE/'@MHS>

4.7.3.3. 822.msg-id -> IPMS.IPMIdentifier

If the 822.local-part can be parsed as:

[ printablestring ] '*' [ std-or-address ]

and the 822.domain is 'MHS', then this ID was X.400 generated. If
EBNF.printablestring is present, the value is assigned to
IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user-relative-identifier. If EBNF.std-or-address
is present, the OR Address components derived from it are used to set
IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user.

Otherwise, this is an RFC 822 generated ID. In this case, set
IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user-relative-identifier to a printable string
encoding of the 822.msg-id without the angle braces and omit
IPMS.IPMID.user.

4.7.3.4. IPMS.IPMIdentifier -> 822.msg-id

If IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user is absent, and IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user-
relative-identifier mapped to ASCII and angle braces added parses as
822.msg-id, then this is an RFC 822 generated ID.

Otherwise, the ID is X.400 generated. Use the
IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user to generate an EBNF.std-or-address form
string. Build the 822.local-part of the 822.msg-id with the syntax:

[ printablestring ] '*' [ std-or-address ]

The printablestring is taken from IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user-relative-
identifier. Use 822.quoted-string if necessary. The 822.msg-id is
generated with this 822.local-part, and 'MHS' as the 822.domain.

4.7.3.5. Phrase form

In 'In-Reply-To:' and 'References:', the encoding 822.phrase may be
used as an alternative to 822.msg-id. To map from 822.phrase to
IPMS.IPMIdentifier, assign IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user-relative-
identifier to the phrase. When mapping from IPMS.IPMIdentifier for
'In-Reply-To:' and 'References:', if IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user is



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absent and IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user-relative-identifier does not parse
as 822.msg-id, generate an 822.phrase rather than adding the domain
MHS.

4.7.3.6. RFC 987 backwards compatibility

The mapping defined here is different to that used in RFC 987, as the
RFC 987 mapping lead to changed message IDs in many cases. Fixing
the problems is preferable to retaining backwards compatibility. An
implementation of this standard may recognise message IDs generated
by RFC 987. This is not recommended.

RFC 987 generated encodings may be recognised as follows. When
mapping from X.400 to RFC 822, if the IPMS.IPMIdentifier.user-
relative-identifier is 'RFC-822' the id is RFC 987 generated. When
mapping from RFC 822 to X.400, if the 822.domain is not 'MHS', and
the 822.local-part can be parsed as

[ printablestring ] '*' [ std-or-address ]

then it is RFC 987 generated. In each of these cases, it is
recommended to follow the RFC 987 rules.

Chapter 5 - Detailed Mappings

This chapter specifies detailed mappings for the functions outlined
in Chapters 1 and 2. It makes extensive use of the notations and
mappings defined in Chapters 3 and 4.

5.1. RFC 822 -> X.400: Detailed Mappings

The mapping of RFC 822/MIME messages to X.400 InterPersonal Messages
is described in Sections 5.1.1 to 5.1.7. Mapping of NOTARY format
delivery status notifications, which are all messages of type
multipart/report and subtype delivery-status-notifications to X.400
delivery reports is covered in Section 5.1.8.

5.1.1. Basic Approach

A single IP Message is generated from an RFC 822 message. The RFC
822 headers are used to generate the IPMS.Heading.

Some RFC 822 fields cannot be mapped onto a standard IPM Heading
field, and so an extended field is defined in Section 5.1.2. This is
then used for fields which cannot be mapped onto existing services.






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The message is submitted to the MTS, and the services required can be
defined by specifying MTS.MessageSubmissionEnvelope. A few
parameters of the MTA Abstract service are also specified, which are
not in principle available to the MTS User. Use of these services
allows RFC 822 MTA level parameters to be carried in the analogous
X.400 service elements. The advantages of this mapping far outweigh
the layering violation.

5.1.2. X.400 Extension Field

An IPMS Extension is defined:

rfc-822-field HEADING-EXTENSION
VALUE RFC822FieldList
::= id-rfc-822-field-list


RFC822FieldList ::= SEQUENCE OF RFC822Field

RFC822Field ::= IA5String

The Object Identifier id-rfc-822-field-list is defined in Appendix D.

To encode any RFC 822 Header using this extension, an RFC822Field
element is built using the 822.field omitting the trailing CRLF
(e.g., 'Fruit-Of-The-Day: Kiwi Fruit'). All fields shall be unfolded.
There shall be no space before the ':'. The reverse mapping builds
the RFC 822 field in a straightforward manner. This RFC822Field is
appended to the RFC822FieldList, which is added to the IPM Heading as
an extension field.

5.1.3. Generating the IPM

The IPM (IPMS Service Request) is generated according to the rules of
this section. The IPMS.IPM.body is generated from the RFC 822 message
body in the manner described in Section 5.1.5.

If no specific 1988 features are used, the IPM generated is encoded
as content type 2. Otherwise, it is encoded as content type 22. The
latter will always be the case if extension heading fields are
generated.










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When generating the IPM, the issue of upper bounds are handled as
follows. Truncate fields to the upper bounds specified in X.400.
This will prevent problems with UAs which enforce upper bounds, but
will sometimes discard useful information. This approach will cause
more problems for some fields than others (e.g., truncating an OR
Address component that would be used to route a reply would be a more
severe problem than truncating a Free Form Name). If the Free Form
name is truncated, it shall be done so that it does not break RFC 822
comments and RFC 1522 encoding.

Note:This approach removes a choice of options given in RFC 1327,
based on operational experience.

The rest of this section concerns IPMS.IPM.heading (IPMS.Heading).
The only mandatory component of IPMS.Heading is the
IPMS.Heading.this-IPM (IPMS.IPMIdentifier). A default is generated
by the gateway. With the exception of 'Received:', the values of
multiple fields are merged (e.g., If there are two 'To:' fields, then
the mailboxes of both are merged to generate a single list which is
used in the IPMS.Heading.primary-recipients. Information shall be
generated from the standard RFC 822 Headers as follows:

Date:
Ignore (Handled at MTS level)

Received:
Ignore (Handled at MTA level)

Message-Id:
Mapped to IPMS.Heading.this-IPM. For these, and all other
fields containing 822.msg-id the mappings of Chapter 4 are used
for each 822.msg-id.

From:
If Sender: is present, this is mapped to
IPMS.Heading.authorizing-users. If not, it is mapped to
IPMS.Heading.originator. For this, and other components
containing addresses, the mappings of Chapter 4 are used for
each address.

Sender:
Mapped to IPMS.Heading.originator. Because X.400 does not have
the same From/Sender distinction as RFC 822, this mapping is not
always natural and may lead to unexpected results in some cases.

Reply-To:
Mapped to IPMS.Heading.reply-recipients.




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To: Mapped to IPMS.Heading.primary-recipients

Cc: Mapped to IPMS.Heading.copy-recipients.

Bcc: Mapped to IPMS.Heading.blind-copy-recipients if there is at
least one BCC: recipient. If there are no recipients in this
field, it shall either be mapped to a zero length sequence or
mapped to a single recipient that has a free from name 'BCC' and
no other addressing information. This alternate treatment is
allowed because some X.400 systems cannot handle a zero lenght
sequence of addresses.

In-Reply-To:
If there is one value, it is mapped to IPMS.Heading.replied-to-
IPM, using the 822.phrase or 822.msg-id mapping as appropriate.
If there are multiple values, this cannot be done as the X.400
heading is single valued. In this case no IPMS.Heading.replied-
to-IPM is generated and the values are mapped to
IPMS.Heading.related-IPMs, along with any values from a
'References:' field.

References:
Mapped to IPMS.Heading.related-IPMs.

Keywords:
Mapped onto a heading extension.

Subject:
Mapped to IPMS.Heading.subject. The field-body uses the human
oriented mapping referenced in Section 3.3.4.

Comments:
Mapped onto a heading extension.

This is a change from 1327, which specified to generate an
IPMS.BodyPart of type IPMS.IA5TextBodyPart with
IPMS.IA5TextBodyPart.parameters.repertoire set to the default
(ia5), containing the value of the fields, preceded by the
string 'Comments: ' and that this body part shall precede the
other one. Experience has shown that this complexity is not
justified. This text is retained to facilitate backwards
compatibility.

Encrypted:
Mapped onto a heading extension.

Resent-*
Mapped onto a heading extension.



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Note that it would be possible to use a ForwardedIPMessage for
these fields, but the semantics are (arguably) slightly
different, and it is probably not worth the effort.

Content-Language:
This field is defined in RFC 1766 [7]. Map the first two
characters of each value given onto the IPM Languages extension.
If any comments or values longer than two characters occur, a
header extension shall also be generated.

Other Fields
In particular X-* fields, and 'illegal' fields in common usage
(e.g., 'Fruit-of-the-day:') are mapped onto a heading extension,
unless covered by another section or appendix of this
specification. The same treatment is applied to RFC 822 fields
where the content of the field does not conform to RFC 822
(e.g., a Date: field with unparseable syntax).

The mapping of the following headings is defined in RFC 2157.

MIME-Version: 5
Content-Transfer-Encoding:
Content-Type
Content-ID
Content-Description

5.1.4. Generating the IPM Body

Generation of the IPM Body is defined in RFC 2157.

5.1.5. Mappings to the MTS Abstract Service

The MTS.MessageSubmissionEnvelope comprises
MTS.PerMessageSubmissionFields, and
MTS.PerRecipientMessageSubmissionFields. The mandatory parameters
are defaulted as follows.

MTS.PerMessageSubmissionFields.originator-name
This is always generated from SMTP, as defined in Chapter 4.

MTS.PerMessageSubmissionFields.content-type
Set to the value implied by the encoding of the IPM (2 or 22).

MTS.PerRecipientMessageSubmissionFields.recipient-name
These will always be supplied from SMTP, as defined in Chapter 4.






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Optional components are omitted, and default components defaulted.
This means that disclosure of recipients is prohibited and conversion
is allowed. There are two exceptions to the defaulting. For
MTS.PerMessageSubmissionFields.per-message-indicators, the following
settings are made:

- Alternate recipient is allowed, as it seems desirable to
maximise the opportunity for (reliable) delivery.

If SMTP is used, Appendix A shall be followed in setting these
parameters.

The trace is set to indicate conversion (described below) and the
encoded information types in the trace is derived from the message
generated by the gateway, and shall reflect all body parts (including
those in enclosed messages). In addition it shall include the
Encoded Information Type 'eit-mixer', which is defined in Appendix D.
The presence of the EIT will indicate to the X.400 recipient that a
MIXER conversion has occurred.
MTS.PerMessageSubmissionFields.original-encoded-information-types
will include all of the values used in the trace, unless specified
otherwise in RFC 2157.

This type of conversion will prevent the normal loop detection from
working in certain circumstances, and introduces the possiblity of
gateway loops. MIXER gateways shall therefore count the number of
MIXER conversions made. If this count exceeds five in one direction,
the message shall be treated as if a loop has been detected.

The MTS.PerMessageSubmissionFields.content-correlator is encoded as
IA5String, and contains the Subject:, Message-ID:, Date:, and To:
fields (if present) in this order. This includes the strings
'Subject:', 'Date:', 'To:', 'Message-ID:', and appropriate folding to
make the field appear readable. This shall be truncated to MTS.ub-
content-correlator-length (512) characters. In addition, if there is
a 'Subject:' field, the MTS.PerMessageSubmissionFields.content-
identifier, is set to a printable string representation of the
contents of it. If the length of this string is greater than
MTS.ub-content-id-length (16), it shall be truncated to 13 characters
and the string '...' appended. Both are used, due to the much larger
upper bound of the content correlator, and that the content id is
available in X.400(1984).









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5.1.6. Mappings to the MTA Abstract Service

There is a need to map directly onto some aspects of the MTA Abstract
service, for the following reasons:

- So the MTS Message Identifier can be generated from the RFC
822 Message-ID:.

- So that the submission date can be generated from the
822.Date.

- To prevent loss of trace information

- To prevent RFC 822/X.400 looping caused by distribution
lists or redirects

The following mappings are defined.

Message-Id:
If this is present and no Resent: fields are present, the
MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.message-identifier may be generated
from it, using the mappings described in Chapter 4.

This mapping arguably generates messages which do not conform to
US GOSIP (1984 version only), which states:

6.7.e MPDU Identifier Validation

(1) Validation of the GlobalDomainIdentifier component of the MPDU
Identifier is performed on reception of a message (i.e. the result
of a TRANSFER.Indication).

(2) The country name should be known to the validating domain, and
depending on the country name, validation of the

ADMD name may also be possible.

(3) Additional validation of the GlobalDomainIdentifier is
performed against the corresponding first entry in the
TraceInformation. If inconsistencies are found during the
comparison, a non-delivery notice with the above defined reason
and diagnostic code is generated.

(4) A request will be generated to the CCITT for a more meaningful
diagnostic code (such as 'InconsistentMPUTIdentifier').






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This applies to ADMDs only, and is specified in the 1984 version and
not the 1988 version. Conformance depends on the interpretation of
'inconsistency'. The specification makes the most sensible choice,
and so is not being changed in the update from RFC 1327.

Date: (and Resent-Date:)
If one or more Resent-Date: fields is present, the most recent
Resent-Date: field shall be used instead of the Date: field in the
following description.

The Date: field is used to set the first component of
MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.trace-information
(MTA.TraceInformationElement). The SMTP originator is mapped into
an MTS.ORAddress, and used to derive
MTA.TraceInformationElement.global-domain-identifier. The
optional components of MTA.TraceInformationElement.domain-
supplied-information are omitted, and the mandatory components are
set as follows:

MTA.DomainSuppliedInformation.arrival-time
This is set to the date derived from Date:

MTA.DomainSuppliedInformation.routing-action
Set to relayed.

The first element of MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.internal-trace-
information is generated in an analogous manner, although this can
be dropped later in certain circumstances (see the procedures for
'Received:'). The MTA.InternalTraceInformationElement.mta-name is
derived from the 822.domain in the 822 MTS Originator address.

Received:
All RFC 822 trace is used to derive
MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.trace-information and
MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.internal-trace-information.
Processing of Received: lines follows processing of Date:, and is
done from the bottom to the top of the RFC 822 header (i.e., in
chronological order). When other trace elements (in particular
X400-Received:) are processed the relative ordering (top to
bottom of the header) shall be retained correctly.

The initial element of MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.trace-
information shall be generated from Date: as described above,
unless the message has previously been in X.400, when it will be
derived from the X.400 trace information.






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For each Received: field, the following processing shall be done.
If the 'by' part of the received is present and there is an
available MCGAM which can map this domain, use it to derive an
MTS.GlobalDomainIdentifier. Otherwise MTS.GlobalDomainIdentifier
is set from local information. If this is different from the one
in the last element of MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.trace-
information (MTA.TraceInformationElement.global-domain-identifier)
create a new MTA.TraceInformationElement, and optionally remove
MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.internal-trace-information.
Requirements on trace stripping are discussed below.

Then add a new element (MTA.InternalTraceInformationElement) to
MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.internal-trace-information, creating
this if needed. This shall be done, even if nter-MD trace is
created. The MTA.InternalTraceInformationElement.global-domain-
identifier is set to the value derived. The
MTA.InternalTraceInformationElement.mta-supplied-information
(MTA.MTASuppliedInformation) is set as follows:

MTA.MTASuppliedInformation.arrival-time
Derived from the date of the Received: line

MTA.MTASuppliedInformation.routing-action
Set to relayed

The MTA.InternalTraceInformationElement.mta-name is taken from the
'by' component of the 'Received:' field, truncated to MTS.ub-mta-
name-length (32). For example:

Received: from computer-science.nottingham.ac.uk by
vs6.Cs.Ucl.AC.UK via Janet with NIFTP id aa03794;
28 Mar 89 16:38 GMT

Generates the string

vs6.Cs.Ucl.AC.UK

The gateway shall add in a single element of trace information,
reflecting the gateway's local information and the time of
conversion. The MTA.InternalTraceInformationElement.mta-supplied-
information (MTA.MTASuppliedInformation) is set as follows:

MTA.DomainSuppliedInformation.arrival-time
Set to the time of conversion

MTA.DomainSuppliedInformation.routing-action
Set to relayed




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MTA.AdditionalAcctions.converted-encoded-information-types Set to
correct set of EITs for the message that is generated by the gateway.
This trace element will thus reflect gateway operation as a
conversion.

This trace generation will often lead to generation of substantial
amounts of trace information, which does not reflect X.400 transfers.
Stripping of some of this trace may be necessary in some operational
environments. This stripping shall be considered a function of the
associated X.400 MTA, and not of the MIXER gateway.

5.1.7. Mapping New Fields

This specification defines a number of new fields for Reports,
Notifications and IP Messages. A gateway conforming to this
specification shall map all of these fields to X.400, except as
defined below.

The mapping of two extended fields is particularly important, in
order to prevent looping. 'DL-Expansion-History:' is mapped to
MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.extensions.dl-expansion-history X400-
Received: shall be mapped to MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.trace-
information and MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.internal-trace-
information. In cases where X400-Received: is present, the usual
mapping of Date: to generate the first element of trace shall not be
done. This is because the message has come from X.400, and so the
first element of trace can be taken from the first X400-Received:.

The following fields shall not be mapped, and shall be

- Discarded-X400-MTS-Extensions:

- Message-Type:

- Discarded-X400-IPMS-Extensions:

- X400-Content-Type:

- X400-Originator:

- X400-Recipients:

- X400-MTS-Identifier: Mapping this field would be useful in
some circumstances, but very dangerous in others (e.g.,
following an internet list expansion). Therefore it is not
mapped.





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5.1.8. Mapping Delivery Status Notifications to X.400

5.1.8.1. Basic Model

Internet Mail delivery status notifications (DSN) are mapped to X.400
delivery reports. With message mapping, information without a
mapping is carried by an IPM Extension. This cannot be done for
delivery reports. Two mechanisms are used for information where
there is not a direct mapping.

The first mechanism is to define extensions, which allow all of the
DSN information to be carried in the delivery report. This is not
completely satisfactory for two reasons:

1. User defined extensions are supported by the ISO version of
the standard, but not the CCITT one. Therefore,
implementation support for these extensions will not be
universal.

2. X.400 User Agent implementations will not in general
recognise these extensions. Therefore, although the
information will be present, it will often not be available
to the user. This may be very problematic, as this
information may be critical to diagnosing the reason for a
failure.

Therefore a second mechanism is defined. This shall always be used
when the DSN contains non-delivery information, and may be used in
other cases. This mechanism is to map the whole DSN (as if it were
an ordinary multipart) into the return of content. This will make
the DSN information available as a text body part in the outer
message, with the real returned content as an enclosed message. This
mechanism will ensure that information is not lost at the gateway.

5.1.8.2. DSN Extensions

Two X.400 MTS extensions are defined as follows:

dsn-header-list EXTENSION
RFC822FieldList
::= id-dsn-header-list

dsn-field-list EXTENSION
RFC822FieldList
::= id-dsn-field-list






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The Object Identifiers id-dsn-header-list and id-dsn-field-list are
defined in Appendix D. Theses extensions are used in the same way as
the IPM extension rfc-822-field, described in Section 5.1.2. These
extensions may only be used with ISO-10021, and not X.400 (which does
not allow user extensions at the MTS level).

5.1.8.3. DSN to Delivery Report Mapping

Some DSNs are mapped to Delivery Reports and some to IPMs, according
to the value of the action field. The mapping to an IPM is exactly
as for a normal IPM mapping. The choice of IPM and Delivery report
is made for each reported recipient. If this choice is different
for different reported recipients both a Delivery Report and an IPM
shall be generated.

Reports are not be submitted in the X.400 model, and so the report
submission is considered in terms of the MTA Abstract Service. An
MTA.Report is constructed. The MTA.ReportTransferEnvelope.report-
identifier is generated from the Message-Id of the DSN (if present)
and otherwise generated as the MTA would generate one for a submitted
message.

The DSN has an RFC 822 header. Trace is mapped in the same manner as
for a message to MTA.ReportTransferEnvelope.trace-information. All
other headers are used to create a dsn-header-list extension, which
is added to MTA.PerReportTransferFields.extensions. The DSN will
have a single SMTP recipient. This is mapped to the
MTA.ReportTransferEnvelope.report-destination-name.

The DSN is then treated as a normal MIME message, and an X.400 IPM is
generated. This IPM is used as
MTA.PerReportTransferFields.returned-content, and its type is used to
set MTA.PerReportTransferFields.content-type. The DSN body part is
mapped as if it was IA5 text/plain.

The mandatory MTA.PerReportTransferFields.subject-identifier shall be
generated from the DSN.per-message-field original-envelope-id, if
this starts with the string 'X400-MTS-Identifier: ', and derived from
the rest of the field, which is encoded as EBNF.mts-msg-id. In other
cases, this field shall be generated by the MIXER Gateway.

All other mappings are made from the DSN body part. A dsn-field-list
extension is created and added to
MTA.ReportTransferFields.extensions. This is referred to as the per
report extension list. The DSN.per-message-fields are mapped as
follows:





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original-envelope-id-field
reporting-mta-field
dsn-gateway-field
received-from-mta-field
arrival-date-field
extension-field
other

All of these fields are added to the per report extension list.
Currently there are no other mappings defined.

Each reported recipient is considered in turn, and a
MTA.PerRecipientReportTransferFields created for each. The
parameters of this are defaulted as follows:

originally-specified-recipient-number
In general, these are not available, and so are assigned
incrementally.

last-trace-information
The arrival-time is generated from DSN.arrival-date if present,
and if not from the Date: of the DSN. This is a strucutred field,
and the Report element contains the key information on the
recipient. For a DeliveryReport, the type-ofMTS-user is defaulted
to public and the message-deliery-time is set to the same as the
arrival-time. For a NonDeliveryReport, the code mappings are
define in Section 5.1.8.4.

A dsn-field-list extension is created and added to
MTA.PerRecipientTransferFields.extensions. This is referred to as
the per recipient extension list. The DSN.per-recipient-fields are
mapped as follows

original-recipient-field
Mapped to MTA.PerRecipientReportTransferFields.originally-
intended-recipient-name.

final-recipient-field
Mapped to MTA.PerRecipientReportTransferFields.actual-recipient-
name.

action-field
If this is set to 'failed', a non-delivery report is generated.
If this is set to 'delivered' a delivery report is generated.
Bit one or two of MTA.PerRecipientTransferFields.per-recipient-
indicators is set accordingly. This also controls the encoding of
MTA.PerRecipientTransferFields.last-trace-information, and the
selection of the report type.



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For other values of the action-field ('delayed', 'relayed',
'expanded'), an IPM is generated. This enables the status
information to be communicated to the X.400 user, without the
confusion of multiple delivery reports.

status-field
This is added to the per report extension list. For non-delivery,
it is also used to generate the reason and diagnostic codes
contained within MTA.PerRecipientReportTransferFields.last-trace.
The mappings are defined below.

remote-mta-field

diagnostic-code-field

last-attempt-date-field

will-retry-until-field

extension-field

other
All of these fields are added to the per recipient extension list.

5.1.8.4. Status Value Mappings

Status values are mapped to X.400 reason and diagnostic codes as
follows.

If a status value is found that is not in this table, the gateway may
use the same mapping as for 'X.n.0' (1/None or 0/None), or it may map
to another, configurable code. Implementors are requested to forward
new codes to the mixer list for inclusion in future versions of this
standard. So for instance. '5.2.37', currently undefined, would map
onto the same as '5.2.0', namely 1/None.
















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DSN code Meaning X400 code Meaning

X.0.0 Other status 1/None

X.1.0 Other Address Status 1/None
X.1.1 Bad mailbox address 1/0 Unrecognized
X.1.2 Bad system address 1/0 Unrecognized
X.1.3 Bad mailbox address syntax 1/0 Unrecognized
X.1.4 Mailbox address ambiguous 1/1
X.1.5 Only used for positive reports, not applicable
X.1.6 Destination mailbox has moved 1/43 New addr unknown
X.1.7 Bad sender's mailbox address syntax 1/11 Invalid arguments
X.1.8 Bad sender's system address 1/11 Invalid arguments

X.2.0 Other or undefined mailbox status 1/None
X.2.1 Mailbox disabled, not accepting 1/4 Recipient unavail
X.2.2 Mailbox full 1/4
X.2.3 Message length exceeds admin limit. 1/7 Content too long
X.2.4 Mailing list expansion problem 1/30 DL expansion fail

X.3.0 Other or undefined system status 0/None
X.3.1 System full 1/2 MTS congestion
X.3.2 System not accepting network messages 1/2 MTS congestion
X.3.3 System not capable of selected feat 1/18 Unsupp crit func
X.3.4 Message too big for system 1/7
X.3.5 System incorrectly configured 1/None

X.4.0 Other or undefined network or routing 0/None
X.4.1 No answer from host 0/None
X.4.2 Bad connection 0/None
X.4.3 Routing server failure 6/None Dir op unsucc.
X.4.4. Unable to route 0/None
X.4.5 Network congestion 1/2 MTS congest.
X.4.6 Routing loop detected 1/3
X.4.7 Delivery time expired 1/5

X.5.0 Other or undefined protocol status 1/None

X.5.1 Invalid command 1/14 Protocol viol.
X.5.2 Syntax error 1/14
X.5.3 Too many recipients 1/16
X.5.4 Invalid command arguments 1/14
X.5.5 Wrong protocol version 1/18 Unsupp.crit.func








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X.6.0 Other or undefined media error 2/None Conv. not perf
X.6.1 Media not supported 1/6 EIT unsupp.
X.6.2 Conversion required and prohibited 1/9
X.6.3 Conversion required but not supported 2/8
X.6.4 Conversion with loss performed POSITIVE only
X.6.5 Conversion failed 2/47 Unable to downgrade

X.7.0 Other or undefined security status 1/46
X.7.1 Delivery not authorized, message ref 1/29 No DL submit perm
X.7.2 Mailing list expansion prohibited 1/28
X.7.3 Security conversion req but not poss 1/46 Secure mess. error
X.7.4 Security features not supported 1/46
X.7.5 Cryptographic failure 1/46
X.7.6 Cryptographic algorithm not supported 1/46
X.7.7 Message integrity failure 1/46

5.1.8.5. DSNs that originated in X.400

The mapping of X.400 delivery reports to DSNs will in general provide
sufficient information to make a useful reverse mapping. Messages
will often be mapped multiple times, commonly due to forwarding
messages and to distribution lists. Multiple mappings for delivery
reports will be a good deal less common. For this reason, the
reverse mapping of the X.400 DSN extensions defined in MIXER is
optional.

5.2. Return of Contents

RFC 1327 offered two approaches for return of content, as this
service is optional in X.400 and expected in RFC 822. MIXER simply
requires that a gateway requests the return of content service from
X.400.

5.3. X.400 -> RFC 822: Detailed Mappings

5.3.1. Basic Approach

A single RFC 822 message is generated from the incoming IP Message,
Report, or IP Notification. All IPMS.BodyParts are mapped onto a
single RFC 822 body. Other services are mapped onto RFC 822 header
fields. Where there is no appropriate existing field, new fields are
defined for IPMS, MTS and MTA services.

The gateway mechanisms will correspond to MTS Delivery. As with
submission, there are aspects where the MTA (transfer) services are
also used. In particular, there is an optimisation to allow for
multiple SMTP recipients.




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5.3.2. RFC 822 Settings

An RFC 822 Message has a number of mandatory fields in the RFC 822
Header. Some SMTP services mandate specification of an SMTP
Originator. Even in cases where this is optional, it is usually
desirable to specify a value. The following defaults are defined,
which shall be used if the mappings specified do not derive a value:

SMTP Originator
If this is not generated by the mapping (e.g., for a Delivery
Report), a value pointing at a gateway administrator shall be
assigned.

Date:
A value will always be generated

From:
If this is not generated by the mapping, it is assigned equal to
the SMTP Originator. If this is gateway generated, an appropriate
822.phrase shall be added.

At least one recipient field
If no recipient fields are generated, a field 'To: list:;', shall
be added.

This will ensure minimal RFC 822 compliance. When generating RFC 822
headers, folding may be used. It is recommended to do this,
following the guidelines of RFC 822.

5.3.3. Basic Mappings

5.3.3.1. Encoded Information Types

This mapping from MTS.EncodedInformationTypes is needed in several
disconnected places. EBNF is defined as follows:

encoded-info = 1#encoded-type

encoded-type = built-in-eit / object-identifier












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built-in-eit = 'Undefined' ; undefined (0)
/ 'Telex' ; tLX (1)
/ 'IA5-Text' ; iA5Text (2)
/ 'G3-Fax' ; g3Fax (3)
/ 'TIF0' ; tIF0 (4)
/ 'Teletex' ; tTX (5)
/ 'Videotex' ; videotex (6)
/ 'Voice' ; voice (7)
/ 'SFD' ; sFD (8)
/ 'TIF1' ; tIF1 (9)

MTS.EncodedInformationTypes is mapped onto EBNF.encoded-info.
MTS.EncodedInformationTypes.non-basic-parameters is ignored. Built
in types are mapped onto fixed strings (compatible with X.400(1984)
and RFC 987), and other types are mapped onto EBNF.object-identifier.

5.3.3.2. Global Domain Identifier

The following simple EBNF is used to represent
MTS.GlobalDomainIdentifier:

global-id = std-or-address

This is encoded using the std-or-address syntax, for the attributes
within the Global Domain Identifier.

5.3.4. Mappings from the IP Message

Consider that an IPM has to be mapped to RFC 822. The IPMS.IPM
comprises an IPMS.IPM.heading and IPMS.IPM.body. The heading is
considered first. Some EBNF for new fields is defined:

ipms-field = 'Supersedes' ':' 1*msg-id
/ 'Expires' ':' date-time
/ 'Reply-By' ':' date-time
/ 'Importance' ':' importance
/ 'Sensitivity' ':' sensitivity
/ 'Autoforwarded' ':' boolean
/ 'Incomplete-Copy' ':'
/ 'Content-Language' ':' 1#language
/ 'Message-Type' ':' message-type
/ 'Discarded-X400-IPMS-Extensions' ':' 1#object-identifier
/ 'Autosubmitted' ':' autosubmitted


importance = 'low' / 'normal' / 'high'





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sensitivity = 'Personal' / 'Private' /
'Company-Confidential'

language = 2*ALPHA [ '(' language-description ')' ]
language-description = printable-string


message-type = 'Delivery Report'
/ 'InterPersonal Notification'
/ 'Multiple Part'

autosubmitted = 'not-auto-submitted'
/ 'auto-generated'
/ 'auto-replied'
/ 'auto-forwarded'

The mappings and actions for the IPMS.Heading are now specified for
each element. Addresses and Message Identifiers are mapped according
to Chapter 4. Other mappings are explained, or are straightforward
(algorithmic). If a field with addresses contains zero elements, it
shall be discarded, except for IPMS.Heading.blind-copy-recipients,
which can be mapped onto BCC: (the only RFC 822 field which allows
zero recipients).

IPMS.Heading.this-IPM
Mapped to 'Message-ID:'.

IPMS.Heading.originator
If IPMS.Heading.authorizing-users is present this is mapped to
Sender:, if not to 'From:'.

IPMS.Heading.authorizing-users
Mapped to 'From:'.

IPMS.Heading.primary-recipients
Mapped to 'To:'.

IPMS.Heading.copy-recipients
Mapped to 'Cc:'.

IPMS.Heading.blind-copy-recipients
Mapped to 'Bcc:'.

IPMS.Heading.replied-to-ipm
Mapped to 'In-Reply-To:'.






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IPMS.Heading.obsoleted-IPMs
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'Supersedes:'. The replaces
the RFC 1327 field 'Obsoletes:'. Reverse mapping of the RFC 1327
field may be supported.

IPMS.Heading.related-IPMs
Mapped to 'References:'.

IPMS.Heading.subject
Mapped to 'Subject:'. The contents are converted to ASCII or T.61
(as defined in Section 3.5). CRLF will not be present in a valid
X.400 field. Any CRLF present are not mapped, but are used as
points at which the subject field shall be folded, unless an RFC
1522 encoding is used.

IPMS.Heading.expiry-time
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'Expires:'. The replaces the
RFC 1327 field 'Expiry-Date:'. Reverse mapping of the RFC 1327
field may be supported.

IPMS.Heading.reply-time
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'Reply-By:'.

IPMS.Heading.reply-recipients
Mapped to 'Reply-To:'.

IPMS.Heading.importance
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'Importance:'.

IPMS.Heading.sensitivity
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'Sensitivity:'.

IPMS.Heading.autoforwarded
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'Autoforwarded:'.

The standard extensions (Annex H of X.420 / ISO 10021-7) are mapped
as follows:

incomplete-copy
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'Incomplete-Copy:'.

language
Mapped to the RFC 822 field 'Content-Language:', defined in RFC
1766 [7]. This mapping may be made without loss of information.

auto-submitted
Map to the extended RFC 822 field 'Autosubmitted:'.




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If the RFC 822 extended header is found, this shall be mapped onto an
RFC 822 header, as described in Section 5.1.2.

If a non-standard extension is found, it shall be discarded, unless
the gateway understands the extension and can perform an appropriate
mapping onto an RFC 822 header field. If extensions are discarded,
the list is indicated in the extended RFC 822 field 'Discarded-X400-
IPMS-Extensions:'.

5.3.4.1. Mapping the IPMS Body

The mapping of the IPMS Body is defined in RFC 2157.

5.3.4.2. Example Message

An example message, illustrating a number of aspects is given below.

Received: from mhs-relay.ac.uk by bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk via JANET with
NIFTP id <7906-0@bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk>;
Thu, 30 May 1991 18:24:55 +0100
X400-Received: by mta 'mhs-relay.ac.uk' in /PRMD=uk.ac/ADMD= /C=gb/;
Relayed; Thu, 30 May 1991 18:23:26 +0100
X400-Received: by /PRMD=HMG/ADMD=GOLD 400/C=GB/; Relayed;
Thu, 30 May 1991 18:20:27 +0100
Message-Type: Multiple Part
Date: Thu, 30 May 1991 18:20:27 +0100
X400-Originator: Stephen.Harrison@gosip-uk.hmg.gold-400.gb
X400-MTS-Identifier:
[/PRMD=HMG/ADMD=GOLD 400/C=GB/;PC1000-910530172027-57D8]
Original-Encoded-Information-Types: ia5
X400-Content-Type: P2-1984 (2)
X400-Content-Identifier: Email Problems
From: Stephen.Harrison@gosip-uk.hmg.gold-400.gb (Tel +44 71 217 3487)
Message-ID:
To: Jim Craigie ,
Tony Bates ,
Steve Kille
Subject: Email Problems
Sender: Stephen.Harrison@gosip-uk.hmg.gold-400.gb
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundary-1

--boundary-1
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII

Hope you gentlemen.......





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Regards,

Stephen Harrison
UK GOSIP Project

--boundary-1
Content-Type: message/rfc822

From: Urs Eppenberger
Message-ID:
<562*/S=Eppenberger/OU=verw/O=switch/PRMD=SWITCH/ADMD=ARCOM/C=CH/@MHS>
To: 'Stephen.Harrison'
Cc: kimura@bsdarc.bsd.fc.nec.co.jp
Subject: Response to Email link
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundary-2


--boundary-2

Dear Mr Harrison......


--boundary-2--

--boundary-1--

5.3.5. Mappings from an IP Notification

Because of the service setting, IP Notifications will not usually
need to be mapped by a MIXER gateway. A message is generated, with
the following fields:

From:
Set to the IPMS.IPN.ipn-originator.

To: Set to the recipient from MTS.MessageSubmissionEnvelope.
If there have been redirects, the original address shall be used.

Subject:
Set to the string 'X.400 Inter-Personal Notification' for a
receipt notification and to 'X.400 Inter-Personal Notification
(failure)' for a non-receipt notification.

Message-Type:
Set to 'InterPersonal Notification'

References:
Set to IPMS.IPN.subject-ipm



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Discarded-X400-IPMS-Extensions:
Used for any discarded IPN extensions.

The following EBNF is defined for the body of the Message. This
format is defined to ensure that all information from an
interpersonal notification is available to the end user in a uniform
manner.

ipn-body-format = ipn-description
[ ipn-extra-information ]
[ ipn-content-return ]

ipn-description = ipn-receipt / ipn-non-receipt

ipn-receipt = 'Your message to:' preferred-recipient
'was received at' receipt-time
'This notification was generated'
acknowledgement-mode
'The following extra information was given:'
ipn-suppl

ipn-non-receipt = 'Your message to:'
preferred-recipient
ipn-reason

ipn-reason = ipn-discarded / ipn-auto-forwarded

ipn-discarded = 'was discarded for the following reason:'
discard-reason

ipn-auto-forwarded = 'was automatically forwarded.'
[ 'The following comment was made:'
auto-comment ]


ipn-extra-information =
'The following information types were converted:'
encoded-info

ipn-content-return = 'The Original Message is not available'
/ 'The Original Message follows:'

preferred-recipient = mailbox
receipt-time = date-time
auto-comment = printablestring
ipn-suppl = printablestring





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discard-reason = 'Expired' / 'Obsoleted' /
'User Subscription Terminated' / 'IPM Deleted'

acknowledgement-mode = 'Manually' / 'Automatically'

The mappings for elements of the common fields of IPMS.IPN
(IPMS.CommonFields) onto this structure and the message header are:

subject-ipm
Mapped to 'References:'

ipn-originator
Mapped to 'From:'.

ipn-preferred-recipient
Mapped to EBNF.preferred-recipient

conversion-eits
Mapped to EBNF.encoded-info in EBNF.ipn-extra-information

The mappings for elements of IPMS.IPN.non-receipt-fields
(IPMS.NonReceiptFields) are:

non-receipt-reason
Used to select between EBNF.ipn-discarded and EBNF.ipn-auto-
forwarded

discard-reason
Mapped to EBNF.discard-reason

auto-forward-comment
Mapped to EBNF.auto-comment

returned-ipm
This applies only to non-receipt notifications. EBNF.ipn-
content-return shall always be omitted for receipt notifications,
and always be present in non-receipt notifications. If present,
the second option of EBNF.ipn-content-return is chosen, and the
message is included. In this case, the message is formatted as
multipart/mixed, and the returned message included as
message/rfc822 after the text body part. Otherwise the first
option is chosen.

The mappings for elements of IPMS.IPN.receipt-fields
(IPMS.ReceiptFields) are:

receipt-time
Mapped to EBNF.receipt-time



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acknowledgement-mode
Mapped to EBNF.acknowledgement-mode

suppl-receipt-info
Mapped to EBNF.ipn-suppl

An example notification is:

From: Steve Kille
To: Julian Onions
Subject: X.400 Inter-personal Notification
Message-Type: InterPersonal Notification
References: <1229.614418325@UK.AC.NOTT.CS>
Date: Wed, 21 Jun 89 08:45:25 +0100

Your message to: Steve Kille
was automatically forwarded.
The following comment was made:
Sent on to a random destination

The following information types were converted: g3fax

5.3.6. Mappings from the MTS Abstract Service

This section describes the MTS mappings for User Messages (IPM and
IPN). This mapping is defined by specifying the mapping of
MTS.MessageDeliveryEnvelope. The following extensions to RFC 822 are
defined to support this mapping:

mts-field = 'X400-MTS-Identifier' ':' mts-msg-id
/ 'X400-Originator' ':' mailbox
/ 'X400-Recipients' ':' 1#mailbox
/ 'Original-Encoded-Information-Types' ':'
encoded-info
/ 'X400-Content-Type' ':' mts-content-type
/ 'X400-Content-Identifier' ':' printablestring
/ 'Priority' ':' priority
/ 'Originator-Return-Address' ':' 1#mailbox
/ 'DL-Expansion-History' ':' mailbox ';' date-time
';'
/ 'Conversion' ':' prohibition
/ 'Conversion-With-Loss' ':' prohibition
/ 'Delivery-Date' ':' date-time
/ 'Discarded-X400-MTS-Extensions' ':'
1#( object-identifier / labelled-integer )


prohibition = 'Prohibited' / 'Allowed'



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mts-msg-id = '[' global-id ';' *text ']'

mts-content-type = 'P2' / labelled-integer
/ object-identifier

priority = 'normal' / 'non-urgent' / 'urgent'


The mappings for each element of MTS.MessageDeliveryEnvelope can now
be considered. Where the specified action does not result in an
extended element being mapped, the criticality associated with this
element shall be considered. If the element is marked as critical
for transfer or for delivery, the message shall be non delivered by
the gateway because a critical extension cannot be correctly handled.

MTS.MessageDeliveryEnvelope.message-delivery-identifier
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'X400-MTS-Identifier:'.

MTS.MessageDeliveryEnvelope.message-delivery-time
Discarded, as this time will be represented in an appropriate
trace element.

The mappings for elements of MTS.MessageDeliveryEnvelope.other-fields
(MTS.OtherMessageDeliveryFields) are:

content-type
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'X400-Content-Type:'. The
string 'P2' is retained for backwards compatibility with RFC 987.
This shall not be generated, and either the EBNF.labelled-integer
or EBNF.object-identifier encoding used.

originator-name
Mapped to the SMTP originator, and to the extended RFC 822 field
'X400-Originator:'. This is described in Section 4.6.2.

original-encoded-information-types
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'Original-Encoded-
Information-Types:'.

priority
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'Priority:'.

delivery-flags
If the conversion-prohibited bit is set, add an extended RFC 822
field 'Conversion:'.

this-recipient-name and other-recipient-names
The handling of these elements is described in Section 4.6.2.



Kille Standards Track [Page 96]

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originally-intended-recipient-name
The handling of this element is described in Section 4.6.2.

converted-encoded-information-types
Discarded. This information will be mapped in the trace.

message-submission-time
Mapped to Date:.

content-identifier
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'X400-Content-Identifier:'.
In RFC 1327, this was 'Content-Identifier:'. This has been
changed to avoid confusion with MIME defined fields. Gateways
which reverse map, may support the old field.

If any extensions (MTS.MessageDeliveryEnvelope.other-
fields.extensions) are present, and they are marked as critical for
transfer or delivery, then the message shall be rejected. The
extensions (MTS.MessageDeliveryEnvelope.other-fields.extensions) are
mapped as follows.

conversion-with-loss-prohibited
If set to MTS.ConversionWithLossProhibited.conversion-with-loss-
prohibited, then add the extended RFC 822 field 'Conversion-With-
Loss:'.

requested-delivery-method
Mapped to a comment, as described in Section 4.6.2.2.

originator-return-address
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'Originator-Return-Address:'.

physical-forwarding-address-request
physical-delivery-modes
registered-mail-type
recipient-number-for-advice
physical-rendition-attributes
physical-delivery-report-request
physical-forwarding-prohibited


These elements are only appropriate for physical delivery.
They are represented as comments in the 'X400-Recipients:'
field, as described in Section 4.6.2.2.

originator-certificate
message-token
content-confidentiality-algorithm-identifier



Kille Standards Track [Page 97]

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content-integrity-check
message-origin-authentication-check
message-security-label
proof-of-delivery-request

These elements imply use of security services not available in the
RFC 822 environment. If they are marked as critical for transfer
or delivery, then the message shall be rejected. Otherwise they
are discarded.

redirection-history
This is described in Section 4.6.2.

dl-expansion-history
Each element is mapped to an extended RFC 822 field 'DL-
Expansion-History:'. These fileds shall be ordered in the message
header, so that the most recent expansion comes first (same order
as trace).

If any MTS (or MTA) Extensions not specified in X.400 are present,
and they are marked as critical for transfer or delivery, then the
message shall be rejected. If they are not so marked, they can
safely be discarded. The list of discarded fields shall be
indicated in the extended header 'Discarded-X400-MTS-Extensions:'.

5.3.7. Mappings from the MTA Abstract Service

There are some mappings at the MTA Abstract Service level which are
done for IPM and IPN. These can be derived from
MTA.MessageTransferEnvelope. The reasons for the mappings at this
level, and the violation of layering are:

- Allowing for multiple recipients to share a single RFC 822
message

- Making the X.400 trace information available on the RFC 822
side

- Making any information on deferred delivery available

The SMTP recipients are calculated from the full list of X.400
recipients. This is all of the members of
MTA.MessageTransferEnvelope.per-recipient-fields being passed through
the gateway, where the responsibility bit is set. In some cases, a
different RFC 822 message would be calculated for each recipient, due
to differing service requests for each recipient. As discussed in
4.6.2.2, this specification allows either for multiple messages to be
generated, or for the per-recipient information to be discarded.



Kille Standards Track [Page 98]

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The following EBNF is defined for extended RFC 822 headers:

mta-field = 'X400-Received' ':' x400-trace
/ 'Deferred-Delivery' ':' date-time
/ 'Latest-Delivery-Time' ':' date-time

x400-trace = 'by' md-and-mta ';'
[ 'deferred until' date-time ';' ]
[ 'converted' '(' encoded-info ')' ';' ]
[ 'attempted' md-or-mta ';' ]
action-list
';' arrival-time

md-and-mta = [ 'mta' mta 'in' ] global-id
mta = word
arrival-time = date-time

md-or-mta = 'MD' global-id
/ 'MTA' mta

Action-list = 1#action
action = 'Redirected'
/ 'Expanded'
/ 'Relayed'
/ 'Rerouted'

Note the EBNF.mta is encoded as 822.word. If the character set does
not allow encoding as 822.atom, the 822.quoted-string encoding is
used.

If MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.deferred-delivery-time is present, it
is used to generate a Deferred-Delivery: field. X.400 does not make
this information available at the MTS level on delivery, because it
requires that this service is provided by the first MTA. In the event
that the first MTA does not provide this service, the function may
optionally be implemented by the gateway: that is, the gateway may
hold the message until the time specified in the protocol element.
Thus, the value of this element will usually be in the past. For
this reason, the extended RFC 822 field is primarily for information.

If MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.extensions.dl-expansion-prohibited is
present and set to dl-expansion-probited, the gateway may reject that
message on the basis that it is unable to control distribution list
expansion beyond the gateway. The service relating to this is
described in Section 2.3.1.2. This approach was not specified in RFC
1327. If it is found to be useful, it may be made mandatory in
future versions of MIXER.




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If MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.extensions.recipient-reassignment-
prohibited is present and set to recipeint-reassignment-probited, the
gateway may reject that message on the basis that it is unable to
control distribution list expansion beyond the gateway. The service
relating to this is described in Section 2.3.1.2. This approach was
not specified in RFC 1327. If it is found to be useful, it may be
made mandatory in future versions of MIXER.

Merge MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.trace-information, and
MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.internal-trace-information to produce a
single ordered trace list. If Internal trace from other management
domains has not been stripped, this may require complex interleaving.
Where an element of internal trace and external trace are identical,
except for the MTA in the internal trace, only the internal trace
element shall be presented. Use this to generate a sequence of
'X400-Received:' fields. The only difference between external trace
and internal trace will be the extra MTA information in internal
trace elements.

When generating an RFC 822 message all trace fields (X400-Received
and Received) shall be at the beginning of the header, before any
other fields. Trace shall be in chronological order, with the most
recent element at the front of the message. This ordering is
determined from the order of the fields, not from timestamps in the
trace, as there is no guarantee of clock synchronisation. A simple
example trace (external) is:

X400-Received: by /PRMD=UK.AC/ADMD=Gold 400/C=GB/ ; Relayed ;
Tue, 20 Jun 89 19:25:11 +0100

A more complex example (internal):

X400-Received: by mta 'UK.AC.UCL.CS' in
/PRMD=UK.AC/ADMD=Gold 400/C=GB/ ;
deferred until Tue, 20 Jun 89 14:24:22 +0100 ;
converted (undefined, g3fax) ; attempted MD /ADMD=Foo/C=GB/ ;
Relayed, Expanded, Redirected ; Tue, 20 Jun 89 19:25:11 +0100

The gateway itself shall add a single line of trace information,
indicating MIXER conversion by use of a comment. For example:

Received: from isode.com by isode.com
(MIXER Conversion following RFC 1327);
Thu, 2 Jan 1997 14:46:03 +0000

If SMTP is being used, Appendix A shall also be followed, which
includes optional mappings to extension parameters.




Kille Standards Track [Page 100]

RFC 2156 MIXER January 1998


5.3.8. Mappings from Report Delivery

that only reports destined for the MTS user will be mapped. Some
additional services are also taken from the MTA service. X.400
Delivery Reports are Mapped onto Delivery Status Notifications, as
defined by NOTARY [28].

5.3.8.1. MTS Mappings

A Delivery Report service will be represented as
MTS.ReportDeliveryEnvelope, which comprises of per-report-fields
(MTS.PerReportDeliveryFields) and per-recipient-fields.

The enclosing message is a MIME message of content type
multipart/report, with report-type=delivery-status, which is
generated with the following fields:

From:
An administrator at the gateway system.

To: A mapping of the
MTA.ReportTransferEnvelope.report-destination-name. This is
also the SMTP recipient.

Message-Type:
Set to 'Delivery Report'. This is strictly redundant, but
retained for backwards compatibility with RFC 1327.

Subject:
The EBNF for the subject line is:

subject-line = 'Delivery-Report' '(' status ')'
[ 'for' destination ]

status = 'success' / 'failure' / 'success and failures'

destination = mailbox / 'MTA' word

The subject is intended to give a clear indication as to the nature
of the message, and summarise its contents. EBNF.status is set
according to whether the recipients reported on are all successes,
all failures, or a mixture. It is common for a report to reference a
single recipient, in which case a subject line giving using all of
the options of EBNF.status can be used. This gives useful
information to the recipient. Where information varies between
reported recpients, the options cannot be used. The EBNF.destination
is used to indicate the addresses in the reports. If the report is
for a single address, EBNF.mailbox is used to give the RFC 822



Kille Standards Track [Page 101]

RFC 2156 MIXER January 1998


representation of the address. If all of the reported recpients
reference the same MTA this is included in EBNF.word. The MTA is
determined from the delivery report's trace.

The format of the body of the message follows the NOTARY delivery
status notification format, and is defined to ensure that all
information is conveyed to the RFC 822 user in a consistent manner.
The format is structured as if it was a message coming from the
gateway, with three body parts. The first body part is ASCII text
structured as follows:

1. A few lines giving keywords to indicate the original
message.

2. A human summary of the status of each recipient being
reported on.

The second (mandatory) body part is the NOTARY delivery status
notification, which contains detailed information extracted from the
report. This information may be critical to diagnosing an obscure
problem.

The third (optional) body part contains the returned message (return
of content). This structure is useful to the RFC 822 recipient, as
it enables the original message to be extracted. For negative
reports it shall be included if the original message is available.
For positive reports headers from the message shall be included if
the original message is available.

The first body part containing the user oriented description is of
type text/plain. The format of this body part is defined below as
EBNF.dr-user-info.

dr-user-info = dr-summary
dr-recipients
dr-content-return

dr-content-return = 'The Original Message is not available'
/ 'The Original Message follows:'

dr-summary = 'This report relates to your message:'
content-correlator
'of' date-time

dr-recipients = *(dr-recipient )

dr-recipient = dr-recip-success / dr-recip-failure




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dr-recip-success =
'Your message was successfully delivered to:'
mailbox 'at' date-time


dr-recip-failure = 'Your message was not delivered to:'
mailbox
'for the following reason:' *word report-point
= [ 'mta' mta-name 'in' ] global-id content-correlator = *word
mta-name = word

EBNF.dr-summary
The EBNF.content-correlator is taken from the content correlator
(or content identifier if there is no content correlator) and the
EBNF.date-time from the trace, as described in Section 5.3.8.3.
LWSP may be added to improve the layout of the body part.

EBNF.dr-recipients
There is an element for each recipient in the delivery report. In
each case, EBNF.mailbox is taken from the RFC 822 form of the
originally specified recipient, which is taken from the originally
specified recipient element if present or from the actual
recipient. When reporting success, the message delivery time is
used to derive EBNF.date-time. When reporting failure, the
information includes a human readable interpretation of the X.400
diagnostic and reason codes, and the supplementary information.

EBNF.dr-content-return
This is set according to whether or not the content is being
returned.

The EBNF of this body part is designed for english-speaking users.
The language of the strings in the EBNF may be altered.


















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The EBNF used in the delivery status notification is:

dr-per-message-fields =
/ 'X400-Conversion-Date' ':' date-time
/ 'X400-Subject-Submision-Identifier' ':'
mts-msg-id
/ 'X400-Content-Identifier' ':' printablestring
/ 'X400-Content-Type' ':' mts-content-type
/ 'X400-Original-Encoded-Information-Types' ':'
encoded-info
/ 'X400-Originator-and-DL-Expansion-History' ':'
mailbox ';' date-time ';'
/ 'X400-Reporting-DL-Name' ':' mailbox
/ 'X400-Content-Correlator' ':' content-correlator
/ 'X400-Recipient-Info' ':' recipient-info
/ 'X400-Subject-Intermediate-Trace-Information' ':'
x400-trace
/ dr-extensions

dr-per-recipient-fields =
/ 'X400-Redirect-Recipient' ':' 'x400' ';' std-or
/ 'X400-Mapped-Redirect-Recipient' ':' 'rfc822' ';' mailbox
/ 'X400-Converted-EITs' ':' encoded-info ';'
/ 'X400-Delivery-Time' ':' date-time
/ 'X400-Type-of-MTS-User' ':' labelled-integer
/ 'X400-Last-Trace' ':' [ encoded-info ] date-time
/ 'X400-Supplementary-Info' ':'
<'> printablestring <'> ';'
/ 'X400-Redirection-History' ':' redirect-history-item
/ 'X400-Physical-Forwarding-Address' ':' mailbox
/ 'X400-Originally-Specified-Recipient-Number' ':'
integer
/ dr-extensions

dr-extensions = 'X400-Discarded-DR-Extensions' ':'
1# (object-identifier / labelled-integer)

dr-diagnostic = 'Reason' labelled-integer-2
[ ';' 'Diagnostic' labelled-integer-2 ]

A body part of type delivery status, as defined by NOTARY, is
generated. MIXER extends this delivery status notification (DSN)
specification, by defining additional per message fields in EBNF.dr-
per-message-fields and additional per recipient fields in EBNF.dr-
per-recipient-fields. These are used as extensions to DSN.per-
message-fields and DSN.per-recipient-fields. MIXER also defines a
new NOTARY address type 'x400', with encoding of EBNF.std-or. A
directory name may be inluded as an RFC 822 comment.



Kille Standards Track [Page 104]

RFC 2156 MIXER January 1998


The following DSN.per-message-fields are always generated:

DSN.reporting-mta-field
The DSN.mta-name-type is set to 'x400', and this string is
reserved by MIXER. The DSN.mta-name has its syntax specified by
EBNF.report-point, with the information derived from the first
element of the DR's trace.

DSN.arrival-date-field
This is derived from the date of the
MTA.PerRecipientReportTransferFields.last-trace-info.arrival-time
of the first recipient in the report.

The following two EBNF.per-message-fields are generated by the MIXER
gateway:

DSN.dsn-gateway-field
The type is set to 'dns' and the domain set to the local domain
of the gateway.

X400-Conversion-Date:
The EBNF.date-time is set to the time of the MIXER conversion.

The elements of MTS.ReportDeliveryEnvelope.per-report-fields are
mapped as follows onto the DSN per message fields as follows:

subject-submission-identifier
Mapped to DSN.original-envelope-id-field. The encoding of this
MTS Identifier follows the format EBNF.mts-msg-id.

content-identifier
Mapped to X400-Content-Identifier:

content-type
Mapped to X400-Content-Type:

original-encoded-information-types
Mapped to X400-Encoded-Info:

The extensions from MTS.ReportDeliveryEnvelope.per-report-
fields.extensions are mapped as follows:

originator-and-DL-expansion-history
Each element is mapped to an 'X400-Originator-and-DL-Expansion-
History:' They shall be ordered so that the most recent expansion
comes first in the header (same order as trace).





Kille Standards Track [Page 105]

RFC 2156 MIXER January 1998


reporting-DL-name
Mapped to X400-Reporting-DL-Name:

content-correlator
If the content correlator starts with the string 'SMTP/NOTARY
ENVID: ', then the remainder of the content correlator is mapped
to the DSN original-envelope-id field. If this is not the case,
the content correlator is mapped to X400-Content-Correlator:,
provided that the encoding is IA5String (this will always be the
case).

message-security-label
reporting-MTA-certificate
report-origin-authentication-check

These security parameters will not be present unless there is an
error in a remote MTA. If they are present, they shall be
discarded in preference to discarding the whole report. They
shall be listed in the X400-Discarded-DR-Extensions: field.

If there are any other DR extensions, they shall also be discarded
and listed in the X400-Discarded-DR-Extensions: field.

For each element of MTS.ReportDeliveryEnvelope.per-recipient-fields,
a set of DSN.per-recipient-fields is generated. The fields are
filled in as follows:

actual-recipient-name
If originally-intended-recipient-name is not present, generate a
DSN.original-recipient-field fields, with DSN.address-type of
'rfc822', and with an RFC 822 mailbox generated from the address
encoded as specified by NOTARY. Also generate a DSN.final-
recipient-field field, which holds the X.400 representation of the
same address. If the directory name is present, it shall be added
as a trailing comment in the X.400 form.

If originally-intended-recipient-name is present, generate an
'X400-Mapped-Redirect-Recipient:' field, with DSN.address-type of
'rfc822', and with an RFC 822 mailbox generated from the address
encoded as specified by NOTARY. Also generate an 'X400-Redirect-
Recipient:' field, which holds the X.400 representation of the
same address. If the directory name is present, it shall be added
as a trailing comment in the X.400 form.








Kille Standards Track [Page 106]

RFC 2156 MIXER January 1998


report
If it is MTS.Report.delivery, then set DSN.action-field to
'delivered', and set 'X400-Delivery-Time:' and 'X400-Type-of-MTS-
User:' from the information in the report. DSN.status field is
set to '2.0.0'.

If it is MTS.Report.non-delivery, then set DSN.action-field to
'failed'. DSN.diagnostic-code-field is encoded according to the
syntax EBNF.dr-diagnostic, with the labelled integers set from the
reason and diagnostic codes. DSN.status-field is derived from the
reason and diagnostic codes, as described below.

converted-encoded-information-types
Set X400-Converted-EITs:

originally-intended-recipient
Generate a DSN.final-recipient-field field, with DSN.address-type
of 'rfc822', and with an RFC 822 mailbox generated from the
address encoded as specified by NOTARY. Also generate a
DSN.original-recipient-field field, which holds the X.400
representation of the same address. If the directory name is
present, it shall be added as a trailing comment in the X.400
form.

supplementary-info
Set X400-Supplementary-Info:

redirection-history
Generate an 'X400-Redirection-History:' field for each redirect
history element. The fields are ordered with the earliest
redirect first.

physical-forwarding-address
Set X400-Physical-Forwarding-Address as a mailbox, with directory
name in comment if present.

recipient-certificate
Discard

proof-of-delivery
Discard

Any unknown extensions shall be discarded, irrespective of
criticality. All discarded extensions shall be included in a 'X400-
Discarded-DR-Extensions:' field.






Kille Standards Track [Page 107]

RFC 2156 MIXER January 1998


The number from the MTA.PerRecipientReportTransferFields.originally-
specified-recipient-number shall be mapped to 'X400-Originally-
Specified-Recipient-Number:', in order to facilitate reverse mapping
of delivery reports.

The original message shall be included in the delivery status
notification if it is available. The original message will usually be
available at the gateway, as discussed in Section 5.2. If the
original message is available, but is not a legal message format, a
dump of the ASN.1 may be included, encoded as application/octet-
string. This is recommended, but not required.

Where the original message is included, it shall be encoded according
to the MIME specifications as content type message/rfc822.

5.3.8.2. Status Code Mappings

This section defines the mappings from X.400 diagnostic and status
codes to the NOTARY Status field.

C/D X400 meaning DSN code Means

0/Any Transfer failure (may be temporary) 4.4.0 Other net/route
1/Any Unable to transfer 5.0.0 Other, unknown
2/Any Conversion not performed 5.6.3 Conv not supported
3/Any Physical rendition not performed 5.6.0 Other media error
4/Any Physical delivery not performed 5.1.0 Other address
status
5/Any Restricted delivery 5.7.1
6/Any Directory operation unsuccessful 5.4.3 Routing server
failure
7/Any Deferred delivery not performed 5.3.3 Not capable

1/0 Unrecognized OR name 5.1.1
1/1 Ambiguous OR name 5.1.4
1/2 MTS congestion 4.3.1
1/3 Loop detected 5.4.6
1/4 Recipient unavailable 4.2.1
1/5 Delivery time expired 4.4.7
1/6 Encoded information types unsupported 5.6.1 Media unsupp.
1/7 Content too long 5.2.3
2/8 Conversion impractical 5.6.3
2/9 Conversion prohibited 5.6.3
1/10 Implicit conversion not subscribed 5.6.3
1/11 Invalid arguments 5.5.2
1/12 Content syntax error 5.5.2
1/13 Size constraint violation 5.5.2
1/14 Protocol violation 5.5.0



Kille Standards Track [Page 108]

RFC 2156 MIXER January 1998


1/15 Content type not supported 5.6.1 Media unsupp.
1/16 Too many recipients 5.5.3
1/17 No bilateral agreement 5.4.4
1/18 Unsupported critical function 5.3.3 System not capable
2/19 Conversion with loss prohibited 5.6.2
2/20 Line too long 5.6.0
2/21 Page split 5.6.0
2/22 Pictorial symbol loss 5.6.2
2/23 Punctuation symbol loss 5.6.2
2/24 Alphabetic character loss 5.6.2
2/25 Multiple information loss 5.6.2
1/26 Recipient reassignment prohibited 5.4.0 Undefined net/route
1/27 Redirection loop detected 5.4.6
1/28 DL expansion prohibited 5.7.2
1/29 No DL submit permission 5.7.1 Delivery not
authorized
1/30 DL expansion failure 4.2.4
4/31 Physical rendition attrs not supported 5.6.0 Undefined media
error
4/32-45 Various physical mail stuff 5.1.0 Other address
status
1/43 New address unknown 5.1.6 Destination mbox
moved
1/46 Secure messaging error 5.7.0 Other security
status
2/47 Unable to downgrade 5.3.3 System not capable
0/48 Unable to complete transfer 5.3.4 Message too big
0/49 Transfer attempts limit reached 4.4.7 Delivery time
expired

5.3.8.3. MTA Mappings

The single SMTP recipient is constructed from
MTA.ReportTransferEnvelope.report-destination-name, using the
mappings of Chapter 4. Unlike with a user message, this information
is not available at the MTS level.

The following additional mappings are made, which results in fields
in the outer header of the DSN.

MTA.ReportTransferEnvelope.report-destination-name
This is used to generate the To: field.

MTA.ReportTransferEnvelope.identifier
Mapped to the extended RFC 822 field 'X400-MTS-Identifier:'. It
may also be used to derive a 'Message-Id:' field.





Kille Standards Track [Page 109]

RFC 2156 MIXER January 1998


MTA.ReportTransferEnvelope.trace-information
and
MTA.ReportTransferEnvelope.internal-trace-information

Mapped onto the extended RFC 822 field 'X400-Received:', as
described in Section 5.3.7. Date: is generated from the first
element of trace.

The following additional mappings are made, which result in per
message fields in the DSN body part:

MTA.PerRecipientReportTransferFields.last-trace-information
Mapped to X400-Last-Trace:'.

MTA.PerReportTransferFields.subject-intermediate-trace-
information Mapped to 'X400-Subject-Intermediate-Trace-
Information:'. These fields are ordered so that the most recent
trace element comes first.

5.3.8.4. Example Delivery Reports

This section contains sample delivery reports. These are the same
examples used in RFC 1327, and so they also illustrate the changes
between RFC 1327 and this document. Example Delivery Report 1:

Received: from cs.ucl.ac.uk by bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk
via Delivery Reports Channel id <27699-0@bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk>;
Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:48:39 +0000 From: UCL-CS MTA
To: S.Kille@cs.ucl.ac.uk Subject: Delivery
Report (failure) for H.Hildegard@bbn.com Message-Type: Delivery
Report Date: Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:48:39 +0000 Message-ID:
<'bells.cs.u.694:07.01.91.15.48.34'@cs.ucl.ac.uk> X400-Content-
Identifier: Greetings. MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type:
multipart/report; report-type=delivery-status;
boundary=boundary-1

--boundary-1

This report relates to your message:
Greetings.

of Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:48:20 +0000

Your message was not delivered to
H.Hildegard@bbn.com for the following reason:
Bad Address
MTA 'bbn.com' gives error message (USER) Unknown user name
in



Kille Standards Track [Page 110]

RFC 2156 MIXER January 1998


'H.Hildegard@bbn.com'

The Original Message follows:


--boundary-1 content-type: message/delivery-status

Reporting-MTA: x400; bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk in /PRMD=uk.ac/ADMD=gold
400/C=gb/ Arrival-Date: Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:48:34 +0000 DSN-Gateway:
dns; bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk X400-Conversion-Date: Thu, 7 Feb 1991
15:48:40 +0000 Original-Envelope-Id:
[/PRMD=uk.ac/ADMD=gold
400/C=gb/;<1803.665941698@UK.AC.UCL.CS>] X400-Content-Identifier:
Greetings. X400-Subject-Intermediate-Trace-Information:
/PRMD=uk.ac/ADMD=gold 400/C=gb/;
arrival Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:48:20 +0000 action Relayed X400-
Subject-Intermediate-Trace-Information: /PRMD=uk.ac/ADMD=gold
400/C=gb/;
arrival Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:48:18 +0000 action Relayed



Original-Recipient: rfc822; H.Hildegard@bbn.com Final-Recipient:
x400;
/RFC-822=H.Hildegard(a)bbn.com/OU=cs/O=ucl/PRMD=uk.ac/ADMD=gold
400/C=gb/; Action: failure Status: 5.1.1 Diagnostic-Code: x400;
Reason 1 (Unable-To-Transfer);
Diagnostic 0 (Unrecognised-ORName) X400-Last-Trace: (ia5) Thu, 7
Feb 1991 15:48:18 +0000; X400-Originally-Specified-Recipient-Number:
1 X400-Supplementary-Info: 'MTA 'bbn.com' gives error message (USER)
Unknown user name in 'H.Hildegard@bbn.com'';


--boundary-1 Content-Type: message/rfc822

Received: from glenlivet.cs.ucl.ac.uk by bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk
with SMTP inbound id <27689-0@bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk>;
Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:48:21 +0000 To: H.Hildegard@bbn.com Subject:
Greetings. Phone: +44-71-380-7294 Date: Thu, 07 Feb 91 15:48:18
+0000 Message-ID: <1803.665941698@UK.AC.UCL.CS> From: Steve Kille



Steve

--boundary-1--





Kille Standards Track [Page 111]

RFC 2156 MIXER January 1998


Example Delivery Report 2:

Received: from cs.ucl.ac.uk by bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk
via Delivery Reports Channel id <27718-0@bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk>;
Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:49:11 +0000
X400-Received: by mta 'bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk' in
/PRMD=uk.ac/ADMD=gold 400/C=gb/;
Relayed; Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:49:08 +0000
X400-Received: by /PRMD=DGC/ADMD=GOLD 400/C=GB/; Relayed;
Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:48:40 +0000
From: UCL-CS MTA
To: S.Kille@cs.ucl.ac.uk
Subject: Delivery Report (failure) for
j.nosuchuser@dle.cambridge.DGC.gold-400.gb
Message-Type: Delivery Report
Date: Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:46:11 +0000
Message-ID: <'DLE/910207154840Z/000'@cs.ucl.ac.uk>
X400-Content-Identifier: A useful mess...
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/report; report-type=delivery-status;
boundary=boundary-1

--boundary-1

This report relates to your message:
A useful mess...

of Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:43:20 +0000


Your message was not delivered to
j.nosuchuser@dle.cambridge.DGC.gold-400.gb
for the following reason:
Bad Address
DG 21187: (CEO POA) Unknown addressee.

The Original Message is not available


--boundary-1
content-type: message/delivery-status


Reporting-MTA: x400; /PRMD=DGC/ADMD=GOLD 400/C=GB/
Arrival-Date: Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:48:40 +0000
DSN-Gateway: dns; bells.cs.ucl.ac.uk
X400-Conversion-Date: Thu, 7 Feb 1991 15:49:12 +0000
Original-Envelope-Id:



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[/PRMD=uk.ac/ADMD=gold 400/C=gb/;<1796.665941626@UK.AC.UCL.CS>]
X400-Content-Identifier: A useful mess...


Original-Recipient: rfc822; j.nosuchuser@dle.cambridge.DGC.gold-400.gb
Final-Recipient: x400;
/I=j/S=nosuchuser/OU=dle/O=cambridge/PRMD=DGC/ADMD=GOLD 400/C=GB/
Action: failure
Status: 5.1.1
Diagnostic-Code: x400; Reason 1 (Unable-To-Transfer);
Diagnostic 0 (Unrecognised-ORName)
X400-Supplementary-Info: 'DG 21187: (CEO POA) Unknown addressee.'
X400-Originally-Specified-Recipient-Number: 1

--boundary-1--


5.3.9. Probe

This is an MTS internal issue. Any probe shall be serviced by the
gateway, as there is no equivalent RFC 822 functionality. The value
of the reply is dependent on whether the gateway could service an MTS
Message with the values specified in the probe. The reply shall make
use of MTS.SupplementaryInformation to indicate that the probe was
serviced by the gateway.


























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Appendix A - Mappings Specific to SMTP

This Appendix is specific to the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (RFC
821). It describes specific changes in the context of this protocol.
When MIXER is used with SMTP, conformance to this appendix is
mandatory.

1. Probes

When servicing a probe, as described in section 5.3.9, use may be
made of the SMTP VRFY command to increase the accuracy of information
contained in the delivery report.

2. Long Lines

SMTP is a text oriented protocol, and is required to support a line
length of at least 1000 characters. Some implementations do not
support line lengths greater than 1000 characters. This can cause
problems. Where body parts have long lines, it is recommended to use
a MIME encoding that folds lines (quoted printable).

3. SMTP Extensions

There are several RFCs that specify extensions to SMTP. Most of these
are not relevant to MIXER. The NOTARY work to support delivery
report defines extensions which are relevant [29]. Use of these
extensions by a MIXER gateway is optional. If these extensions are
used, they shall be used in the manner described below.

3.1. SMTP Extension mapping to X.400

Mappings are defined for the following extensions:

NOTIFY
This is used to set the report and non-delivery bits of
MTA.PerRecipientMessageTransferFields.per-recipient-indicators.
If the value is NEVER, both bits are zero. If SUCCESS is present,
the report bit is set. Otherwise, the non-delivery-report bit is
set. If the gateway uses the NOTIFY command, it shall perform
this mapping in all cases.

ORCPT
If the address type of the original recipient is 'x400' or
'rfc822', this may be used at the MTS level, to generate an
element of redirection history, with the redirection date being
the date of conversion and the reason set to 'alias'.





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ENVID
If present, this may be used to generate a content correlator.
This is used rather than the MTS Identifier, as the ENVID is
unique for the UA only and is likely to be too large to map to an
MTS identifier. The content correlator is encoded as an IA5 String
containing the ENVID and prefixed by the string:

'SMTP/NOTARY ENVID: '

If the ENVID starts with the string 'X400-MTS-Identifier: ', then
this ENVID was generated from an X.400 MTS Identifier. The
reverse mapping defined in Section 3.2 of Appendix A shall not be
used, as this may cause problems in certain situations (e.g.,
where the message was expanded by an Internet mailing list).

3.2. X.400 Mapping to SMTP Extensions

The following extensions may be used as a part of the MIXER mapping:

NOTIFY
The originator-report and originator-non-delivery-report bits of
MTA.PerRecipientMessageTransferFields.per-recipient-indicators
determine how this is used. If both bits are zero, the parameter
is NEVER. If the report bit is set, SUCCESS is used. Otherwise,
FAILURE is used. If this is done, the gateway shall not generate
a delivery report for this recipient, unless this is needed in the
case where the originating MTA service report requirements differ
from the user requirements. Additional originating MTA
requrirements are satisfied by the gateway.

ORCPT
If the MTS.perRecipientDeliveryFields.originally-intended-
recipient-name is present, the ORCPT command may be used to carry
this value, using the 'x400' syntax.

ENVID
This may be generated, with the value taken from the
MTS.MessageDeliveryEnvelope.message-delivery-identifer. If this
is done, it shall be encoded as EBNF.mts-msg-id, preceded by the
string 'X400-MTS-Identifier: '.

RET
If MTA.PerMessageTransferFields.per-message-indicators.content-
return-request is set to FALSE, the parameter RET may be set to
HDRS, to specify return of headers only.






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Appendix B - Mapping with X.400(1984)

This appendix defines modifications to the mapping for use with
X.400(1984).

The X.400(1984) protocols are a proper subset of X.400(1988). When
mapping from X.400(1984) to RFC 822, no changes to this specification
are needed.

When mapping from RFC 822 to X.400(1984), no use can be made of 1988
specific features. No use of such features is made at the MTS
level. The heading extension feature is used at the IPMS level, and
this shall be replaced by the RFC 987 approach. All header
information which would usually be mapped into the rfc-822-heading-
list extension is mapped into a single IA5 body part, which is the
first body part in the message. This body part will start with the
string 'RFC-822-Headers:' as the first line. The headers then follow
this line. This specification requires correct reverse mapping of
this format, either from 1988 or 1984. RFC 822 extended headers
which could be mapped into X.400(1988) elements, are also mapped to
the body part.

In an environment where RFC 822 is of major importance, it may be
desirable for downgrading to consider the case where the message was
originated in an RFC 822 system, and mapped according to this
specification. The rfc-822-heading-list extension may be mapped
according to this appendix.

When parsing std-or, the following restrictions shall be observed:

- Only the 84/88 attributes identified in the table in
Section 4.2 are present.

- No teletex encoding is allowed.

If an address violates this, it shall be treated as an RFC 822
address, which will usually lead to encoding as a DDA 'RFC-822'.

It is possible that attributes of zero length may be present
in an OR Address. This is not legal in 1988, except for ADMD
where the case is explicitly described in Section 4.3.5.
Attributes of zero length are deprecated (the attribute shall be
omitted), and will therefore be unusual. However, some systems
generate them and rely on them. Therefore, any null attribute
shall be enoded using the std-or encoding (e.g., /O=/).






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If a non-Teletex Common Name (CN) is present, it shall be
mapped onto a Domain Defined Attribute 'Common'. This is in line
with RFC 1328 on X.400 1988 to 1984 downgrading [22].

This specification defines a mapping of the Internet message
framework to X.400. Body part mappings are defined in RFC
2157 [6], which relies on X.400(88) features. Downgrading to
X.400(84) for body parts is defined in RFC 1496 (HARPOON), which
shall be followed in the context of this appendix [5].










































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Appendix C - RFC 822 Extensions for X.400 access

This appendix defines a number of optional mappings which may be
provided to give access from RFC 822 to a number of X.400 services.
These mappings are beyond the basic scope of this specification.
There has been a definite demand to use extended RFC 822 as a
mechanism to access X.400, and these extensions provide access to
certain features. If this functionality is provided, this appendix
shall be followed. The following headings are defined:

extended-heading =
'Prevent-NonDelivery-Report' ':'
/ 'Generate-Delivery-Report' ':'
/ 'Alternate-Recipient' ':' prohibition
/ 'Disclose-Recipients' ':' prohibition
/ 'X400-Content-Return' ':' prohibition

Prevent-NonDelivery-Report and Generate-Delivery-Report allow setting
of MTS.PerRecipientSubmissionFields.originator-report-request. The
setting will be the same for all recipients.

Alternate-Recipient, Disclose-Recipients, and X400-Content-Return
allow for override of the default settings for
MTS.PerMessageIndicators.

Use of NOTARY mechanisms is a preferred meachanism for controlling
these parameters.
























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Appendix D - Object Identifier Assignment

The following Object Identifiers shall be used.

internet ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER { iso org(3) dod(6) 1 } -- from RFC
1155

mail OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { internet 7 } -- IANA assigned

mixer OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mail mixer(1) } -- inherited from RFC
1495
mixer-core OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mixer core(3) }

id-rfc-822-field-list OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {mixer-core 2}
id-dsn-header-list OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {mixer-core 3}
id-dsn-field-list OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {mixer-core 4}

eit-mixer OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {mixer-core 5}
-- the MIXER pseudo-EIT

This object identifier for id-rfc-822-field-list is different to
the one assigned in RFC 1327, which was erroneous.





























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Appendix E - BNF Summary

boolean = 'TRUE' / 'FALSE'


numericstring = *(DIGIT / ' ')


printablestring = *( ps-char )
ps-restricted-char = 1DIGIT / 1ALPHA / ' ' / ''' / '+'
/ ',' / '-' / '.' / '/' / ':' / '=' / '?'
ps-delim = '(' / ')'
ps-char = ps-delim / ps-restricted-char


ps-encoded = *( ps-restricted-char / ps-encoded-char )
ps-encoded-char = '(a)' ; (@)
/ '(p)' ; (%)
/ '(b)' ; (!)
/ '(q)' ; (')
/ '(u)' ; (_)
/ '(l)' ; '('
/ '(r)' ; ')'
/ '(' 3DIGIT ')'

teletex-string = *( ps-char / t61-encoded )
t61-encoded = '{' 1* t61-encoded-char '}'
t61-encoded-char = 3DIGIT


teletex-and-or-ps = [ printablestring ] [ '*' teletex-string ]


labelled-integer ::= [ key-string ] '(' numericstring ')'

labelled-integer-2 ::= [ numericstring ] '(' key-string ')'

key-string = *key-char
key-char =

object-identifier ::= oid-comp object-identifier
| oid-comp

oid-comp ::= [ key-string ] '(' numericstring ')'


encoded-info = 1#encoded-type




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encoded-type = built-in-eit / object-identifier

built-in-eit = 'Undefined' ; undefined (0)
/ 'Telex' ; tLX (1)
/ 'IA5-Text' ; iA5Text (2)
/ 'G3-Fax' ; g3Fax (3)
/ 'TIF0' ; tIF0 (4)
/ 'Teletex' ; tTX (5)
/ 'Videotex' ; videotex (6)
/ 'Voice' ; voice (7)
/ 'SFD' ; sFD (8)
/ 'TIF1' ; tIF1 (9)



encoded-pn = [ given '.' ] *( initial '.' ) surname

given = 2*

initial = ALPHA

surname = printablestring


std-or-address = 1*( '/' attribute '=' value ) '/'
attribute = standard-type
/ 'RFC-822'
/ dd-key '.' std-printablestring

std-or-address-input = [ sep pair ] sep pair *( sep pair )
sep [ pair sep ]

sep = '/' / ';'
pair = input-attribute '=' value
input-attribute = attribute
/ dd-key ':' std-printablestring


standard-type = key-string

dd-key = key-string

value = std-printablestring

std-printablestring
= *( std-char / std-pair )

std-char = <'{', '}', '*', and any ps-char



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except '/' and '=' >
std-pair = '$' ps-char


global-id = std-or-address



mta-field = 'X400-Received' ':' x400-trace
/ 'Deferred-Delivery' ':' date-time
/ 'Latest-Delivery-Time' ':' date-time



x400-trace = 'by' md-and-mta ';'
[ 'deferred until' date-time ';' ]
[ 'converted' '(' encoded-info ')' ';' ]
[ 'attempted' md-or-mta ';' ]
action-list
';' arrival-time


md-and-mta = [ 'mta' mta 'in' ] global-id
mta = word
arrival-time = date-time

md-or-mta = 'MD' global-id
/ 'MTA' mta

Action-list = 1#action
action = 'Redirected'
/ 'Expanded'
/ 'Relayed'
/ 'Rerouted'

dr-user-info = dr-summary
dr-recipients
dr-content-return


dr-content-return = 'The Original Message is not available'
/ 'The Original Message follows:'

dr-summary = 'This report relates to your message:'
content-correlator
'of' date-time

dr-recipients = *(dr-recipient )



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dr-recipient = dr-recip-success / dr-recip-failure

dr-recip-success =
'Your message was successfully delivered to:'
mailbox 'at' date-time


dr-recip-failure = 'Your message was not delivered to:'
mailbox
'for the following reason:' *word

report-point = [ 'mta' mta-name 'in' ] global-id
content-correlator = *word
mta-name = word

dr-per-message-fields =
/ 'X400-Conversion-Date' ':' date-time
/ 'X400-Subject-Submision-Identifier' ':'
mts-msg-id
/ 'X400-Content-Identifier' ':' printablestring
/ 'X400-Content-Type' ':' mts-content-type
/ 'X400-Original-Encoded-Information-Types' ':'
encoded-info
/ 'X400-Originator-and-DL-Expansion-History' ':'
mailbox ';' date-time ';'
/ 'X400-Reporting-DL-Name' ':' mailbox
/ 'X400-Content-Correlator' ':' content-correlator
/ 'X400-Recipient-Info' ':' recipient-info
/ 'X400-Subject-Intermediate-Trace-Information' ':'
x400-trace
/ dr-extensions


dr-per-recipient-fields =
/ 'X400-Redirect-Recipient' ':' 'x400' ';' std-or
/ 'X400-Mapped-Redirect-Recipient' ':' 'rfc822' ';'
mailbox
/ 'X400-Converted-EITs' ':' encoded-info ';'
/ 'X400-Delivery-Time' ':' date-time
/ 'X400-Type-of-MTS-User' ':' labelled-integer
/ 'X400-Last-Trace' ':' [ encoded-info ] date-time
/ 'X400-Supplementary-Info' ':'
<'> printablestring <'> ';'
/ 'X400-Redirection-History' ':' redirect-history-item
/ 'X400-Physical-Forwarding-Address' ':' mailbox
/ 'X400-Originally-Specified-Recipient-Number' ':'
integer
/ dr-extensions



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dr-extensions = 'X400-Discarded-DR-Extensions' ':'
1# (object-identifier / labelled-integer)


dr-diagnostic = 'Reason' labelled-integer-2
[ ';' 'Diagnostic' labelled-integer-2 ]

mts-field = 'X400-MTS-Identifier' ':' mts-msg-id
/ 'X400-Originator' ':' mailbox
/ 'X400-Recipients' ':' 1#mailbox
/ 'Original-Encoded-Information-Types' ':'
encoded-info
/ 'X400-Content-Type' ':' mts-content-type
/ 'X400-Content-Identifier' ':' printablestring
/ 'Priority' ':' priority
/ 'Originator-Return-Address' ':' 1#mailbox
/ 'DL-Expansion-History' ':' mailbox ';' date-time ';'
/ 'Conversion' ':' prohibition
/ 'Conversion-With-Loss' ':' prohibition
/ 'Delivery-Date' ':' date-time
/ 'Discarded-X400-MTS-Extensions' ':'
1#( object-identifier / labelled-integer )

prohibition = 'Prohibited' / 'Allowed'

mts-msg-id = '[' global-id ';' *text ']'

mts-content-type = 'P2' / labelled-integer
/ object-identifier

priority = 'normal' / 'non-urgent' / 'urgent'

ipn-body-format = ipn-description
[ ipn-extra-information ]
[ ipn-content-return ]

ipn-description = ipn-receipt / ipn-non-receipt

ipn-receipt = 'Your message to:' preferred-recipient
'was received at' receipt-time
'This notification was generated'
acknowledgement-mode
'The following extra information was given:'
ipn-suppl

ipn-non-receipt = 'Your message to:'
preferred-recipient
ipn-reason



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ipn-reason = ipn-discarded / ipn-auto-forwarded

ipn-discarded = 'was discarded for the following reason:'
discard-reason

ipn-auto-forwarded = 'was automatically forwarded.'
[ 'The following comment was made:'
auto-comment ]


ipn-extra-information =
'The following information types were converted:'
encoded-info

ipn-content-return = 'The Original Message is not available'
/ 'The Original Message follows:'

preferred-recipient = mailbox
receipt-time = date-time
auto-comment = printablestring
ipn-suppl = printablestring


discard-reason = 'Expired' / 'Obsoleted' /
'User Subscription Terminated' / 'IPM Deleted'

acknowledgement-mode = 'Manually' / 'Automatically'


ipms-field = 'Supersedes' ':' 1*msg-id
/ 'Expires' ':' date-time
/ 'Reply-By' ':' date-time
/ 'Importance' ':' importance
/ 'Sensitivity' ':' sensitivity
/ 'Autoforwarded' ':' boolean
/ 'Incomplete-Copy' ':'
/ 'Content-Language' ':' 1#language
/ 'Message-Type' ':' message-type
/ 'Discarded-X400-IPMS-Extensions' ':'
1#object-identifier
/ 'Autosubmitted' ':' autosubmitted

importance = 'low' / 'normal' / 'high'

sensitivity = 'Personal' / 'Private' /
'Company-Confidential'

language = 2*ALPHA [ '(' language-description ')' ]



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language-description = printable-string


message-type = 'Delivery Report'
/ 'InterPersonal Notification'
/ 'Multiple Part'


autosubmitted = 'not-auto-submitted'
/ 'auto-generated'
/ 'auto-replied'
/ 'auto-forwarded'

redirect-comment = redirect-first *( redirect-subsequent )

redirect-first = 'Originally To:' mailbox 'Redirected on'
date-time 'To:' redirection-reason

redirect-subsequent = mailbox 'Redirected Again on'
date-time 'To:' redirection-reason

redirection-history-item = 'intended recipient' mailbox
'redirected to' redirection-reason
'on' date-time

redirection-reason =
'Recipient Assigned Alternate Recipient'
/ 'Originator Requested Alternate Recipient'
/ 'Recipient MD Assigned Alternate Recipient'
/ 'Directory Look Up'
/ 'Alias'

subject-line = 'Delivery-Report' '(' status ')'
[ 'for' destination ]

status = 'success' / 'failure' / 'success and failures'

destination = mailbox / 'MTA' word

extended-heading =
'Prevent-NonDelivery-Report' ':'
/ 'Generate-Delivery-Report' ':'
/ 'Alternate-Recipient' ':' prohibition
/ 'Disclose-Recipients' ':' prohibition
/ 'X400-Content-Return' ':' prohibition






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Appendix F - Text format for MCGAM distribution

1. Text Formats

This appendix defines text formats for exchange of four types of
mapping.

1. Domain Name Space -> OR Address Space MCGAM

2. OR Address Space -> Domain Name Space MCGAM

3. Domain Name Space -> OR Address of preferred gateway

4. OR Address Space -> Domain Name of preferred gateway

2. Mechanisms to register and to distribute MCGAMs

There is a well known set of MCGAM tables.

The global coordination of the mapping rules is a part of the DANTE
MailFLOW Project. New mapping rules may be defined by the authority
responsible for the relevant name space. The rules need to be
registered with a national mapping registration authority, which in
turn passes them on to the central mapping registration authority.
All the collected mapping rules are merged together into the globally
coordinated mapping tables by the MailFLOW Project Team. The tables
are available from the national mapping registration authorities.

To get a contact address of the mapping registration authority for
the respective country or more information about the MailFLOW Project
contact:

SWITCH
MailFLOW Project Team
Limmatquai 138
8001 Zuerich
Switzerland

email: mailflow@mailflow.dante.net
S=MailFLOW;O=MailFLOW;P=DANTE;A=mailnet;C=fi;

fax: +41 1 268 15 68
tel: +41 1 268 15 20








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3. Syntax Definitions

An address syntax is defined, which is compatible with the syntax
used for 822.domains. By representing the OR addresses as domains,
all lookups can be mechanically implemented as domain -> domain
mappings. This syntax defined is initially for use in table format,
but the syntax is defined in a manner which makes it suitable to be
adapted for use with the Domain Name Service. This syntax allows
for a general representation of OR addresses, so that it can be used
in other applications. Not all attributes are used in the table
formats defined.

To allow the mapping where a level of the hierarchy is omitted, the
pseudo-value '@' (not a printable string character) is used to
indicate omission of a level in the hierarchy. This is distinct from
the form including the element with no value, although a correct
X.400 implementation will interpret both in the same manner.

This syntax is not intended to be handled by users.

dmn-or-address = dmn-part *( '.' dmn-part )
mn-part = dmn-attribute '$' value
dmn-attribute = standard-type
/ '~' dmn-printablestring
value = dmn-printablestring
/ '@'
dmn-printablestring =
= *( dmn-char / dmn-pair )
dmn-char = <'{', '}', '*', and any ps-char
except '.'>
dmn-pair = '.'

An example usage:

~ROLE$Big.Chief.ADMD$ATT.C$US
PRMD$DEC.ADMD$@.C$US

The first example illustrates quoting of a '.' and a domain define
attribute (ROLE). The second example illustrates omission of the
ADMD level. There shall be a strict ordering of all components in
this table, with the most significant components on the RHS. This
allows the encoding to be treated as a domain.

Various further restrictions are placed on the usage of dmn-or-
address in the address space mapping tables.

a. Only C, ADMD, PRMD, O, and up to four OUs may be used.




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b. No components shall be omitted from this hierarchy, although
the hierarchy may terminate at any level. If the mapping is
to an omitted component, the '@' syntax is used.

4. Table Lookups

When determining a match, there are aspects which apply to all
lookups. Matches are always case independent. The key for all three
tables is a domain. The longest possible match shall be obtained.
Suppose the table has two entries with the following keys:

K.L
J.K.L

Domain 'A.B.C' will not return any matches. Domain 'I.J.K.L'
will match the entry 'J.K.L:.

5. Domain -> OR Address MCGAM format

The BNF is:

domain-syntax '#' dmn-or-address '#'

EBNF.domain-syntax is defined in Section 4.2. Note that the trailing
'#' is used for clarity, as the dmn-or-address syntax might lead to
values with trailing blanks. Lines starting with '#' are comments.

For example:
AC.UK#PRMD$UK.AC.ADMD$GOLD 400.C$GB#
XEROX.COM#O$Xerox.ADMD$ATT.C$US#
GMD.DE#O$@.PRMD$GMD.ADMD$DBP.C$DE#

A domain is looked up to determine the top levels of an OR Address.
Components of the domain which are not matched are used to build the
remainder of the OR address, as described in Section 4.3.4.

6. OR Address -> Domain MCGAM format

The syntax of this table is:

dmn-or-address '#' domain-syntax '#'

For example:

#
# Mapping table
#
PRMD$UK.AC.ADMD$GOLD 400.C$GB#AC.UK#



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The OR Address is used to generate a domain key. It is important to
order the components correctly, and to fill in missing components in
the hierarchy. Use of this mapping is described in Section 4.3.2.

7. Domain -> OR Address of Preferred Gateway table

This uses the same format as the domain -> OR address MCGAM table.
In this case, the restriction to only use C/ADMD/PRMD/O/OU does not
apply. Use of this mapping is described in Section 4.3.4. A domain
cannot appear in this table and in the domain to OR Address table.

8. OR Addresss -> domain of Preferred Gateway table

This uses the same format as the OR Address -> domain MCGAM table.
Use of this mapping is described in Section 4.3.5. An OR Address
cannot appear in this table and in the OR Address to domain table.



































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Appendix G - Conformance

This appendix defines a number of options, which a conforming gateway
shall specify. Conformance to this specification shall not be
claimed if any of the mandatory features are not implemented. A
specification of conformance may list the service elements of Chapter
2, in order to be clear that full conformance is provied. In
particular:

- Formats for all fields shall be followed.

- The gateway shall enable MCGAMs to be used.

- Formats for subject lines, delivery reports and IPNs shall
be followed. A system which followed the syntax, but
translated text into a language other than english would be
conformant.

- RFC 1137 shall not be followed when mapping to SMTP.

- All mappings of trace shall be implemented.

- There shall be a mechanism to access all three global
mappings.

- RFC 2157 shall be followed for mapping body parts.

- When it is specified that a MIME format message is
generated, RFC 2045 shall be followed.

A gateway shall specify:

- Which Interent Message Transport (822-MTS) protocols are
supported. If SMTP is supported, Appendex A of MIXER shall
be used.

- Which X.400 versions are supported (84, 88, 92).

- Which mechanisms (table, X.500, DNS) are supported to access
MCGAMs.

- The mechanism or mechanisms by which the global mapping
information is accessed.

The following are optional parts of this specification. A conforming
implementation shall specify which of these it supports.

- Support for the extension mappings of Appendix C.



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- Support for returning illegal format content in a delivery
report

- Which address interpretation heuristics are supported
(4.3.4.1)

- If RFC 987 generated message ids are handled in a backwards
compatible manner (4.7.3.6)











































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Appendix H - Change History: RFC 987, 1026, 1138, 1148

RFC 987 was the original document, and contained the key elements of
this specification. It was specific to X.400(1984). RFC 1026
specified a small number of necessary changes to RFC 987.

RFC 1138 was based on the RFC 987 work. It contained an editorial
error, and was reissued a few months later as RFC 1148. RFC 1148
will be referred to here, as it is the document which is widely
referred to elsewhere. The major goal of RFC 1148 was to upgrade RFC
987 to X.400(1988). It did this, but did not obsolete RFC 987, which
was recommended for use with X.400(1984). This appendix summarises
the changes made in going from RFC 987 to RFC 1148.

RFC 1148 noted the following about its upgrade from RFC 987:
Unnecessary change is usually a bad idea. Changes on the RFC 822
side are avoided as far as possible, so that RFC 822 users do not
see arbitrary differences between systems conforming to this
specification, and those following RFC 987. Changes on the X.400
side are minimised, but are more acceptable, due to the mapping onto
a new set of services and protocols.

1. Introduction

The model has shifted from a protocol based mapping to a service
based mapping. This has increased the generality of the
specification, and improved the model. This change affects the
entire document.

A restriction on scope has been added.

2. Service Elements

- The new service elements of X.400 are dealt with.

- A clear distinction is made between origination and
reception

3. Basic Mappings

- Add teletex support

- Add object identifier support

- Add labelled integer support

- Make PrintableString <-> ASCII mapping reversible




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- The printable string mapping is aligned to the NBS mapping
derived from RFC 987.

4. Addressing

- Support for new addressing attributes

- The message ID mapping is changed to not be table driven

5. Detailed Mappings


- Define extended IPM Header, and use instead of second body
part for RFC 822 extensions

- Realignment of element names

- New syntax for reports, simplifying the header and
introducing a mandatory body format (the RFC 987 header
format was unusable)

- Drop complex autoforwarded mapping

- Add full mapping for IP Notifications, defining a body
format

- Adopt an MTS Identifier syntax in line with the OR Address
syntax

- A new format for X400 Trace representation on the RFC 822
side

6. Appendices

- Move Appendix on restricted 822 mappings to a separate RFC

- Delete Phonenet and SMTP Appendixes














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Appendix I - Change History: RFC 1148 to RFC 1327

1. General

- The scope of the document was changed to cover X.400(1984),
and so obsolete RFC 987.

- Changes were made to allow usage to connect RFC 822 networks
using X.400

- Text was tightened to be clear about optional and mandatory
aspects

- A good deal of clarification

- A number of minor EBNF errors

- Better examples are given

- Further X.400 upper bounds are handled correctly

2. Basic Mappings

- The encoding of object identifier is changed slightly

3. Addressing

- A global mapping of domain to preferred gateway is
introduced.

- An overflow mechanism is defined for RFC 822 addresses of
greater than 128 bytes

- Changes were made to improve compatibility with the PDAM on
writing OR Addresses.

+ The PD and Terminal Type keywords were aligned to the
PDAM. It is believed that minimal use has been made of
the RFC 1148 keywords.

+ P and A are allowed as alternate keys for PRMD and ADMD

+ Where keywords are different, the PDAM keywords are
alternatives on input. This is mandatory.

4. Detailed Mappings

- The format of the Subject: lines is defined.



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- Illegal use (repetition) of the heading EXTENSION is
corrected, and a new object identifier assigned.

- The Delivery Report format is extensively revised in light
of operational experience.

- The handling of redirects is significantly changed, as the
previous mechanism did not work.

5. Appendices

- An SMTP appendix is added, allowing optional use of the VRFY
command to improve probe information.

- Handling of JNT Mail Acknowledge-To is changed slightly.

- A DDA JNT-MAIL is allowed on input.

- The format definitions of Appendix F are explained further,
and a third table definition added.

- An appendix on use with X.400(1984) is added.

- Optional extensions are defined to give RFC 822 access to
further X.400 facilities.

- An appendix on conformance is added.
























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Appendix J - Change History: RFC 1327 to this Document

1. General

This update is primarily for stability, and to fold in compatibility
for MIME and to add support for the new NOTARY delivery status
notifications. Other general changes:

- Various editorial updates

- Minor EBNF errors

- Reference to mapping table support by DNS and X.500.

- Alignment to X.400(92)

- Assignment of a new object identifier

- Removal of specification relating to body mapping, which is
now defined in RFC 2157.

2. Service Elements

- Support of Auto-Submitted service

3. Basic Mappings

- Comments shall not be used in new headers, to remove parsing
ambiguity

- RFC 1522 encoding may be used as an alternative to X.408
downgrade, where appropriate.

- Correct handling of RFC 822 four year dates.

4. Addressing

- Replaced the mandatory global address mapping with MCGAMs.

- Add codes and add a heuristic to align to the standard X.400
form of writing OR Addresses.

- Improved text on ordering heuristic

- Leading '/' interpretation added






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- All bar one of the address mapping heuristics made
mandatory.

- Interpretation of domain defined attribute 'RFC-822' made
mandatory in all cases

- Make report request comments optional

5. Detailed Mappings

- Comments no longer maps to separate body part

- Allow Languages to be multi-valued

- Change Content-Identifier to X400-Content-Identifier, in
order to avoid confusion with MIME.

- Reverse mapping of MIXER defined fields made mandatory

- 'Expiry-Date:' changed to 'Expires:'.

- 'Obsoletes:' changed to 'Supersedes:'.

- Define correct handling when 'Resent-Date:' is present.

6. Appendices

- Change 'Content-Return' to 'X400-Content-Return' in Appendix
C.

- Relaxation of restrictions on mapping 3 in Appendix F.

- Add linkage to HARPOON in Appendix B.

- RFC 2157 added to the conformance statement of Appendix
G.

- Added Appendix L, with ASN. Summary.













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Appendix L - ASN.1 Summary

MIXER Definitions { iso org(3) dod(6) internet(1) mail(7)
mixer(1) mixer-core(3) definitions(1) }

DEFINITIONS IMPLICIT TAGS ::=

BEGIN

-- exports everything

IMPORTS

EXTENSION FROM
MTSAbstractService {join-iso-ccit mhs-motis(6) mts(3)
modules(0) mts-abstract-service(1) }

HEADING-EXTENSION FROM
IPMSAbstractService {join-iso-ccit mhs-motis(6) ipms(1)
modules(0) abstract-service(3) }



rfc-822-field HEADING-EXTENSION
VALUE RFC822FieldList
::= id-rfc-822-field-list


RFC822FieldList ::= SEQUENCE OF RFC822Field

RFC822Field ::= IA5String



dsn-header-list EXTENSION
RFC822FieldList
::= id-dsn-header-list

dsn-field-list EXTENSION
RFC822FieldList
::= id-dsn-field-list

internet ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER { iso org(3) dod(6) 1 } -- from RFC
1155

mail OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { internet 7 } -- IANA assigned





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mixer OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mail mixer(1) } -- inherited from RFC
1495
mixer-core OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mixer core(3) }

id-rfc-822-field-list OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {mixer-core 2}
id-dsn-header-list OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {mixer-core 3}
id-dsn-field-list OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {mixer-core 4}

eit-mixer OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {mixer-core 5}
-- the MIXER pseudo-EIT


END -- MIXER ASN.1






































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SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS

Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

AUTHOR'S ADDRESS

Steve Kille
Isode Ltd
The Dome
The Square
Richmond
TW9 1DT
England

Phone: +44-181-332-9091
Internet EMail: S.Kille@ISODE.COM

X.400 Email: I=S; S=Kille; P=Isode; A=Mailnet; C=FI;

UFN: S.Kille, Isode, GB

References

1. CCITT , 'Recommendations X.400', Message Handling Systems:
System Model - Service Elements, October 1984.

2. Allocchio, C., 'MaXIM11 - Mapping between X.400 / Internet
Mail and Mail-11 mail', RFC 2162, January 1998.

3. Allocchio, C., 'Using the Internet DNS to Distribute MIXER
Conformant Global Address Mapping (MCGAM)', RFC 2163,
January 1998.

4. Alvestrand, H., Kille, S., Miles, R., Rose, M., and S.
Thompson, 'Mapping between X.400 and RFC-822 Message
Bodies', RFC 1495, August 1993.

5. Alvestrand, H., Romaguera, J., and K. Jordan, 'Rules for
Downgrading Messages for X.400(88) to X.400(84) When MIME
Content-Types are Present in the Messages (Harpoon)', RFC
1496, August 1993.

6. Alvestrand, H., and S. Thompson, 'Equivalences between X.400
and RFC-822 Message Bodies', RFC 1494, August 1993.

7. Alvestrand, H., 'Tags for the Identification of Languages',
RFC 1766, March 1995.




Kille Standards Track [Page 141]

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8. Alvestrand, H., 'Mapping between X.400 and RFC-822/MIME
Message Bodies', RFC 2157, January 1998.

9. Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, 'Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message
Bodies', RFC 2045, November 1996.

10. Braden, R., 'Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application
and Support', STD 3, RFC 1123, October 1989.

11. CCITT/ISO, 'CCITT Recommendations X.420/ ISO/IEC 10021-7,'
Message Handling Systems: Interpersonal Messaging System,
Dec 1988.

12. CCITT/ISO, 'CCITT Recommendations X.411/ ISO/IEC 10021-4,'
Message Handling Systems: Message Transfer System: Abstract
Service Definition and Procedures, Dec 1988.

13. CCITT/ISO, 'CCITT Recommendations X.400/ ISO/IEC 10021-1,'
Message Handling: System and Service Overview , Dec 1988.

14. CCITT/ISO, 'Specification of Abstract Syntax Notation One
(ASN.1),' CCITT Recommendation X.208 / ISO/IEC 8824, Dec
1988.

15. CCITT/ISO, 'CCITT Recommendations X.400/ ISO/IEC 10021-1,'
Message Handling: System and Service Overview , Dec 1992.

16. Crocker, D., 'Standard of the Format of ARPA Internet Text
Messages', STD 11, RFC 822, August 1982.

17. Kille, S., 'Mapping Between X.400 and RFC 822', UK Academic
Community Report (MG.19) / RFC 987, June 1986.

18. Kille, S., 'Addendum to RFC 987', UK Academic Community
Report (MG.23) / RFC 1026, August 1987.

19. Kille, S., 'Mapping Between X.400(1988) / ISO 10021 and RFC
822', RFC 1138, October 1989.

20. Kille, S., 'Mapping Between X.400(1988) / ISO 10021 and RFC
822', RFC 1148, March 1990.

21. Kille, S., 'Mapping Between X.400(1988) / ISO 10021 and RFC
822', RFC 1327, May 1992.

22. Kille, S., 'X.400 1988 to 1984 downgrading', RFC 1328, May
1992.



Kille Standards Track [Page 142]

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23. Kille, S., 'A String Encoding of Presentation Address', RFC
1278, November 1992.

24. Kille, S., 'A String Representation of Distinguished Name',
RFC 1485, January 1992.

25. Kille, S., 'Using the OSI Directory to achieve User
Friendly Naming', RFC 1484, January 1992.

26. Kille, S., 'Use of an X.500/LDAP directory to support MIXER
address mapping', RFC 2164, January 1998.

27. Koorland, N., 'Message Attachmment Work Group (MAWG): MAWG
Feasibility Project Guide,' EMA Report, Version 1.5, Nov
1995.

28. Moore, K., and G. Vaudreuil, 'An Extensible Message Format for
Delivery Status Notifications', RFC 1894, January 1996.

29. Moore, K., 'SMTP Service Extensions for Delivery Status
Notifications', RFC 1891, Januaty 1996.

30. Postel, J., 'SIMPLE MAIL TRANSFER PROTOCOL', STD 10, RFC 821,
August 1982.



























Kille Standards Track [Page 143]

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Full Copyright Statement

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). All Rights Reserved.

This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
English.

The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
'AS IS' basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
























Kille Standards Track [Page 144]




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